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  • Chan Qiu, Jianrong Tan, Zhenyu Liu, Haoyang Mao, Weifei Hu
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 103-103.
    Design is a high-level and complex thinking activity of human beings, using existing knowledge and technology to solve problems and create new things. With the rise and development of intelligent manufacturing, design has increasingly reflected its importance in the product life cycle. Firstly, the concept and connotation of complex product design is expounded systematically, and the different types of design are discussed. The four schools of design theory are introduced, including universal design, axiomatic design, TRIZ and general design. Then the research status of complex product design is analyzed, such as innovative design, digital design, modular design, reliability optimization design, etc. Finally, three key scientific issues worthy of research in the future are indicated, and five research trends of “newer, better, smarter, faster, and greener” are summarized, aiming to provide references for the equipment design and manufacturing industry.
  • Review
    Wan Zhang, Min-Ping Jia, Lin Zhu, Xiao-An Yan
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2017, 30(4): 782-795.
    Computational intelligence is one of the most powerful data processing tools to solve complex nonlinear problems, and thus plays a significant role in intelligent fault diagnosis and prediction. However, only few comprehensive reviews have summarized the ongoing efforts of computational intelligence in machinery condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. The recent research and development of computational intelligence techniques in fault diagnosis, prediction and optimal sensor placement are reviewed. The advantages and limitations of computational intelligence techniques in practical applications are discussed. The characteristics of different algorithms are compared, and application situations of these methods are summarized. Computational intelligence methods need to be further studied in deep understanding algorithm mechanism, improving algorithm efficiency and enhancing engineering application. This review may be considered as a useful guidance for researchers in selecting a suitable method for a specific situation and pointing out potential research directions.
  • Review
    Yan Wang, Jingyu Hu, Fa'an Wang, Haoxuan Dong, Yongjun Yan, Yanjun Ren, Chaobin Zhou, Guodong Yin
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(2): 6-6.
    Many surveys on vehicle traffic safety have shown that the tire road friction coefficient (TRFC) is correlated with the probability of an accident. The probability of road accidents increases sharply on slippery road surfaces. Therefore, accurate knowledge of TRFC contributes to the optimization of driver maneuvers for further improving the safety of intelligent vehicles. A large number of researchers have employed different tools and proposed different algorithms to obtain TRFC. This work investigates these different methods that have been widely utilized to estimate TRFC. These methods are divided into three main categories: off-board sensors-based, vehicle dynamics-based, and data-driven-based methods. This review provides a comparative analysis of these methods and describes their strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, some future research directions regarding TRFC estimation are presented.
  • 2023-4-25
    Qilong Guan, Chunjin Hang, Shengli Li, Dan Yu, Ying Ding, Xiuli Wang, Yanhong Tian
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 22-22.
    The spacecraft for deep space exploration missions will face extreme environments, including cryogenic temperature, intense radiation, wide-range temperature variations and even the combination of conditions mentioned above. Harsh environments will lead to solder joints degradation or even failure, resulting in damage to onboard electronics. The research activities on high reliability solder joints using in extreme environments can not only reduce the use of onboard protection devices, but effectively improve the overall reliability of spacecraft, which is of great significance to the aviation industry. In this paper, we review the reliability research on SnPb solder alloys, Sn-based lead-free solder alloys and In-based solder alloys in extreme environments, and try to provide some suggestions for the follow-up studies, which focus on solder joint reliability under extreme environments.
  • Special Issue on Processing of Biological Tissue
    Bin Liu, Xin Yi, Ying Zheng, Zhishan Yuan, Jingbo Yang, Jian Yang, Xiao Yu, Lelun Jiang, Chengyong Wang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(3): 106-106.
    Needles, as some of the most widely used medical devices, have been effectively applied in human disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Thin 1D needle can easily penetrate cells/organs by generating highly localized stress with their sharp tips to achieve bioliquid sampling, biosensing, drug delivery, surgery, and other such applications. In this review, we provide an overview of multiscale needle fabrication techniques and their biomedical applications. Needles are classified as nanoneedles, microneedles and millineedles based on the needle diameter, and their fabrication techniques are highlighted. Nanoneedles bridge the inside and outside of cells, achieving intracellular electrical recording, biochemical sensing, and drug delivery. Microneedles penetrate the stratum corneum layer to detect biomarkers/bioelectricity in interstitial fluid and deliver drugs through the skin into the human circulatory system. Millineedles, including puncture, syringe, acupuncture and suture needles, are presented. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives for next-generation nano/micro/milli needles are discussed.
  • 2023-02-25
    Zuogang Shang, Zhibin Zhao, Ruqiang Yan
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(1): 9-9.
    Deep learning (DL) is progressively popular as a viable alternative to traditional signal processing (SP) based methods for fault diagnosis. However, the lack of explainability makes DL-based fault diagnosis methods difficult to be trusted and understood by industrial users. In addition, the extraction of weak fault features from signals with heavy noise is imperative in industrial applications. To address these limitations, inspired by the Filterbank-Feature-Decision methodology, we propose a new Signal Processing Informed Neural Network (SPINN) framework by embedding SP knowledge into the DL model. As one of the practical implementations for SPINN, a denoising fault-aware wavelet network (DFAWNet) is developed, which consists of fused wavelet convolution (FWConv), dynamic hard thresholding (DHT), index-based soft filtering (ISF), and a classifier. Taking advantage of wavelet transform, FWConv extracts multiscale features while learning wavelet scales and selecting important wavelet bases automatically; DHT dynamically eliminates noise-related components via point-wise hard thresholding; inspired by index-based filtering, ISF optimizes and selects optimal filters for diagnostic feature extraction. It's worth noting that SPINN may be readily applied to different deep learning networks by simply adding filterbank and feature modules in front. Experiments results demonstrate a significant diagnostic performance improvement over other explainable or denoising deep learning networks. The corresponding code is available at
  • Review
    Guifang Sun, Zhandong Wang, Yi Lu, Mingzhi Chen, Kun Yang, Zhonghua Ni
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(1): 5-5.
    With the rapid developments of marine resource exploitation, mounts of marine engineering equipment are settled on the ocean. When it is not possible to move the damaged equipment into a dry dock, welding operations must be performed in underwater environments. The underwater laser welding/cladding technique is a promising and advanced technique which could be widely applied to the maintenance of the damaged equipment. The present review paper aims to present a critical analysis and engineering overview of the underwater laser welding/cladding technique. First, we elaborated recent advances and key issues of drainage nozzles all over the world. Next, we presented the underwater laser processing and microstructural-mechanical behavior of repaired marine materials. Then, the newly developed powder-feeding based and wire-feeding based underwater laser direct metal deposition techniques were reviewed. The differences between the convection, conduction, and the metallurgical kinetics in the melt pools during underwater laser direct metal deposition and in-air laser direct metal deposition were illustrated. After that, several challenges that need to be overcame to achieve the full potential of the underwater laser welding/cladding technique are proposed. Finally, suggestions for future directions to aid the development of underwater laser welding/cladding technology and underwater metallurgical theory are provided. The present review will not only enrich the knowledge in the underwater repair technology, but also provide important guidance for the potential applications of the technology on the marine engineering.
  • 2023-4-25
    Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoying Liu, Shuang Wang, Lixiao Zheng
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 45-45.
    Axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motors (AFPMSMs) have been widely used in wind-power generation, electric vehicles, aircraft, and other renewable-energy applications owing to their high power density, operating efficiency, and integrability. To facilitate comprehensive research on AFPMSM, this article reviews the developments in the research on the design and control optimization of AFPMSMs. First, the basic topologies of AFPMSMs are introduced and classified. Second, the key points of the design optimization of core and coreless AFPMSMs are summarized from the aspects of parameter design, structure design, and material optimization. Third, because efficiency improvement is an issue that needs to be addressed when AFPMSMs are applied to electric or other vehicles, the development status of efficiency-optimization control strategies is reviewed. Moreover, control strategies proposed to suppress torque ripple caused by the small inductance of disc coreless permanent magnet synchronous motors (DCPMSMs) are summarized. An overview of the rotor-synchronization control strategies for disc contra-rotating permanent magnet synchronous motors (CRPMSMs) is presented. Finally, the current difficulties and development trends revealed in this review are discussed.
  • Review
    Hugo I. Medellin-Castillo, Jorge Zaragoza-Siqueiros
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2019, 32(3): 53-53.
    Although several research works in the literature have focused on studying the capabilities of additive manufacturing(AM) systems, few works have addressed the development of Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) knowledge, tools, rules, and methodologies, which has limited the penetration and impact of AM in industry. In this paper acomprehensive review of design and manufacturing strategies for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is presented.Consequently, several DfAM strategies are proposed and analysed based on existing research works and the operation principles, materials, capabilities and limitations of the FDM process. These strategies have been divided into fourmain groups: geometry, quality, materials and sustainability. The implementation and practicality of the proposedDfAM is illustrated by three case studies. The new proposed DfAM strategies are intended to assist designers andmanufacturers when making decisions to satisfy functional needs, while ensuring manufacturability in FDM systems.Moreover, many of these strategies can be applied or extended to other AM processes besides FDM.
  • Advanced Transportation Equipment
    Xiantao Zhang, Wei Liu, Yamei Zhang, Yujie Zhao
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(2): 10-10.
    The design of aircraft hydraulic pipeline system is limited by many factors, such as the integrity of aviation structure or narrow installation space, so the limited clamp support position should be considered. This paper studied the frequency adjustment and dynamic responses reduction of the multi-support pipeline system through experiment and numerical simulation. To avoid the resonance of pipeline system, we proposed two different optimization programs, one was to avoid aero-engine working range, and another was to avoid aircraft hydraulic pump pulsation range. An optimization method was introduced in this paper to obtain the optimal clamp position. The experiments were introduced to validate the optimization results, and the theoretical optimization results can agree well with the test. With regard to avoiding the aero-engine vibration frequency, the test results revealed that the first natural frequency was far from the aero-engine vibration frequency. And the dynamic frequency sweep results showed that no resonance occurred on the pipeline in the engine vibration frequency range after optimization. Additionally, with regard to avoiding the pump vibration frequency, the test results revealed that natural frequencies have been adjusted and far from the pump vibration frequency. And the dynamic frequency sweep results showed that pipeline under optimal clamp position cannot lead to resonance. The sensitivity analysis results revealed the changing relationships between different clamp position and natural frequency. This study can provide helpful guidance on the analysis and design of practical aircraft pipeline.
  • Zhibin Zhao, Jingyao Wu, Tianfu Li, Chuang Sun, Ruqiang Yan, Xuefeng Chen
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(3): 56-56.
    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), including monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and health management, occupies an increasingly important position in reducing costly breakdowns and avoiding catastrophic accidents in modern industry. With the development of artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning (DL) approaches, the application of AI-enabled methods to monitor, diagnose and predict potential equipment malfunctions has gone through tremendous progress with verified success in both academia and industry. However, there is still a gap to cover monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis based on AI-enabled methods, simultaneously, and the importance of an open source community, including open source datasets and codes, has not been fully emphasized. To fill this gap, this paper provides a systematic overview of the current development, common technologies, open source datasets, codes, and challenges of AI-enabled PHM methods from three aspects of monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis.
  • 2023-4-25
    Hua Liu, Florian Dangl, Thomas Lohner, Karsten Stahl
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 28-28.
    Lubricating greases are widely used in e.g. open gear drives and gearboxes with difficult sealing conditions. The efficiency and heat balance of grease-lubricated gearboxes depend strongly on the lubrication mechanisms channeling and circulating, for which the grease flow is causal. The computational fluid dynamics opens up the possibility to visualize and understand the grease flow in gearboxes in more detail. In this study, a single-stage gearbox lubricated with an NLGI 1-2 grease was modeled by the finite-volume method to numerically investigate the fluid flow. Results show that the rotating gears influence the grease sump only locally around the gears. For a low grease fill volume, the rotation of the gears is widely separated from the grease sump. For a high grease fill volume, a pronounced gear-grease interaction results in a circulating grease flow around the gears. The simulated grease distributions show good accordance with high-speed camera recordings.
  • Review
    Bing Xu, Jun Shen, Shihao Liu, Qi Su, Junhui Zhang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, 33(2): 29-29.
    Electro-hydraulic control valves are key hydraulic components for industrial applications and aerospace, which controls electro-hydraulic motion. With the development of automation, digital technology, and communication technology, electro-hydraulic control valves are becoming more digital, integrated, and intelligent in order to meet the requirements of Industry 4.0. This paper reviews the state of the art development for electro-hydraulic control valves and their related technologies. This review paper considers three aspects of state acquisition through sensors or indirect acquisition technologies, control strategies along with digital controllers and novel valves, and online maintenance through data interaction and fault diagnosis. The main features and development trends of electro-hydraulic control valves oriented to Industry 4.0 are discussed.
    Chao-Zhong Guo, Ji-Hong Yan, Lawrence A. Bergman
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2017, 30(5): 1177-1183.
    Crack fault diagnostics plays a critical role for rotating machinery in the traditional and Industry 4.0 factory. In this paper, an experiment is set up to study the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack as it passes through its 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/5 subcritical speeds. A cracked shaft is made by applying fatigue loads through a three-point bending apparatus and then placed in a rotor testbed. The vibration signals of the testbed during the coasting-up process are collected. Whirl orbit evolution at these subcritical speed zones is analyzed. The Fourier spectra obtained by FFT are used to investigate the internal frequencies corresponding to the typical orbit characteristics. The results show that the appearance of the inner loops and orientation change of whirl orbits in the experiment are agreed well with the theoretical results obtained previously. The presence of higher frequencies 2X, 3X, 4X and 5X in Fourier spectra reveals the causes of subharmonic resonances at these subcritical speed zones. The experimental investigation is more systematic and thorough than previously reported in the literature. The unique dynamic behavior of the orbits and frequency spectra are feasible features for practical crack diagnosis. This paper provides a critical technology support for the self-aware health management of rotating machinery in the Industry 4.0 factory.
  • Wenwen Wang, Jun Wang, Jinpeng Tian, Jiahuan Lu, Rui Xiong
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(4): 57-57.
    Lithium-ion batteries have always been a focus of research on new energy vehicles, however, their internal reactions are complex, and problems such as battery aging and safety have not been fully understood. In view of the research and preliminary application of the digital twin in complex systems such as aerospace, we will have the opportunity to use the digital twin to solve the bottleneck of current battery research. Firstly, this paper arranges the development history, basic concepts and key technologies of the digital twin, and summarizes current research methods and challenges in battery modeling, state estimation, remaining useful life prediction, battery safety and control. Furthermore, based on digital twin we describe the solutions for battery digital modeling, real-time state estimation, dynamic charging control, dynamic thermal management, and dynamic equalization control in the intelligent battery management system. We also give development opportunities for digital twin in the battery field. Finally we summarize the development trends and challenges of smart battery management.
  • Ying Li, Xing Chen, Hao Luo, Junhui Zhang, Jin Zhang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 86-86.
    Raising the rotational speed of an axial piston pump is useful for improving its power density; however, the churning losses of the piston increase significantly with increasing speed, and this reduces the performance and efficiency of the axial piston pump. Currently, there has been some research on the churning losses of pistons; however, it has rarely been analyzed from the perspective of the piston number. To improve the performance and efficiency of the axial piston pump, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of the churning loss was established, and the effect of piston number on the churning loss was studied in detail. The simulation analysis results revealed that the churning losses initially increased as the number of pistons increased; however, when the number of pistons increased from six to nine, the torque of the churning losses decreased because of the hydrodynamic shadowing effect. In addition, in the analysis of cavitation results, it was determined that the cavitation area of the axial piston pump was mainly concentrated around the piston, and the cavitation became increasingly severe as the speed increased. By comparing the simulation results with and without the cavitation model, it was observed that the cavitation phenomenon is beneficial for the reduction of churning losses. In this study, a piston churning loss test rig that can eliminate other friction losses was established to verify the accuracy of the simulation results. A comparative analysis indicated that the simulation results were consistent with the actual situation. In addition, this study also conducted a simulation study on seven and nine piston pumps with the same displacement. The simulation results revealed that churning losses of the seven pistons were generally greater than those of the nine pistons under the same displacement. In addition, regarding the same piston number and displacement, reducing the pitch circle radius of piston bores is effective in reducing the churning loss. This research analyzes the effect of piston number on the churning loss, which has certain guiding significance for the structural design and model selection of axial piston pumps.
  • Zhenjing Duan, Changhe Li, Wenfeng Ding, Yanbin Zhang, Min Yang, Teng Gao, Huajun Cao, Xuefeng Xu, Dazhong Wang, Cong Mao, Hao Nan Li, Gupta Munish Kumar, Zafar Said, Sujan Debnath, Muhammad Jamil, Hafiz Muhammad Ali
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(1): 18-18.
    Aluminum alloy is the main structural material of aircraft, launch vehicle, spaceship, and space station and is processed by milling. However, tool wear and vibration are the bottlenecks in the milling process of aviation aluminum alloy. The machining accuracy and surface quality of aluminum alloy milling depend on the cutting parameters, material mechanical properties, machine tools, and other parameters. In particular, milling force is the crucial factor to determine material removal and workpiece surface integrity. However, establishing the prediction model of milling force is important and difficult because milling force is the result of multiparameter coupling of process system. The research progress of cutting force model is reviewed from three modeling methods: empirical model, finite element simulation, and instantaneous milling force model. The problems of cutting force modeling are also determined. In view of these problems, the future work direction is proposed in the following four aspects: (1) high-speed milling is adopted for the thin-walled structure of large aviation with large cutting depth, which easily produces high residual stress. The residual stress should be analyzed under this particular condition. (2) Multiple factors (e.g., eccentric swing milling parameters, lubrication conditions, tools, tool and workpiece deformation, and size effect) should be considered comprehensively when modeling instantaneous milling forces, especially for micro milling and complex surface machining. (3) The database of milling force model, including the corresponding workpiece materials, working condition, cutting tools (geometric figures and coatings), and other parameters, should be established. (4) The effect of chatter on the prediction accuracy of milling force cannot be ignored in thin-walled workpiece milling. (5) The cutting force of aviation aluminum alloy milling under the condition of minimum quantity lubrication (mql) and nanofluid mql should be predicted.
  • Review
    Jing-fei Yin, Qian Bai, Bi Zhang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2018, 31(3): 41-41.
    Subsurface damage is easily induced in machining of hard and brittle materials because of their particular mechanical and physical properties. It is detrimental to the strength, performance and lifetime of a machined part. To manufacture a high quality part, it is necessary to detect and remove the machining induced subsurface damage by the subsequent processes. However, subsurface damage is often covered with a smearing layer generated in a machining process, it is rather difficult to directly observe and detect by optical microscopy. An efficient detection of subsurface damage directly leads to quality improvement and time saving for machining of hard and brittle materials. This paper presents a review of the methods for detection of subsurface damage, both destructive and non-destructive. Although more reliable, destructive methods are typically time-consuming and confined to local damage information. Non-destructive methods usually suffer from uncertainty factors, but may provide global information on subsurface damage distribution. These methods are promising because they can provide a capacity of rapid scan and detection of subsurface damage in spatial distribution.
  • Editorial
    Geng Chen, Lele Zhang, Christoph Broechmann, Chao Chang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(6): 132-132.
  • Lei Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Zhenpo Wang, Junjun Deng, David G. Dorrell
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(2): 42-42.
    An X-by-wire chassis can improve the kinematic characteristics of human-vehicle closed-loop system and thus active safety especially under emergency scenarios via enabling chassis coordinated control. This paper aims to provide a complete and systematic survey on chassis coordinated control methods for full X-by-wire vehicles, with the primary goal of summarizing recent reserch advancements and stimulating innovative thoughts. Driving condition identification including driver's operation intention, critical vehicle states and road adhesion condition and integrated control of X-by-wire chassis subsystems constitute the main framework of a chassis coordinated control scheme. Under steering and braking maneuvers, different driving condition identification methods are described in this paper. These are the trigger conditions and the basis for the implementation of chassis coordinated control. For the vehicles equipped with steering-by-wire, braking-by-wire and/or wire-controlled-suspension systems, state-of-the-art chassis coordinated control methods are reviewed including the coordination of any two or three chassis subsystems. Finally, the development trends are discussed.
  • Yanwen Liu, Hongzhou Jiang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 114-114.
    Fishes have learned how to achieve outstanding swimming performance through the evolution of hundreds of millions of years, which can provide bio-inspiration for robotic fish design. The premise of designing an excellent robotic fish include fully understanding of fish locomotion mechanism and grasp of the advanced control strategy in robot domain. In this paper, the research development on fish swimming is presented, aiming to offer a reference for the later research. First, the research methods including experimental methods and simulation methods are detailed. Then the current research directions including fish locomotion mechanism, structure and function research and bionic robotic fish are outlined. Fish locomotion mechanism is discussed from three views: macroscopic view to find a unified principle, microscopic view to include muscle activity and intermediate view to study the behaviors of single fish and fish school. Structure and function research is mainly concentrated from three aspects: fin research, lateral line system and body stiffness. Bionic robotic fish research focuses on actuation, materials and motion control. The paper concludes with the future trend that curvature control, machine learning and multiple robotic fish system will play a more important role in this field. Overall, the intensive and comprehensive research on fish swimming will decrease the gap between robotic fish and real fish and contribute to the broad application prospect of robotic fish.
  • Yundou Xu, Fan Yang, Youen Mei, Dongsheng Zhang, Yulin Zhou, Yongsheng Zhao
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 123-123.
    In the present study, the over-constrained hybrid manipulator R(2RPR)R/SP+RR is considered as the research objective. In this paper, kinematics of the hybrid manipulator, including the forward and inverse position, are analyzed. Then, the workspace is checked based on the inverse position solution to evaluate whether the workspace of the hybrid manipulator meets the requirements, and the actual workspace of the hybrid robot is analyzed. After that, the force analysis of the over-constrained parallel mechanism is carried out, and an ADAMS-ANSYS rigid-flexible hybrid body model is established to verify the simulation. Based on the obtained results from the force analysis, the manipulator structure is designed. Then, the structure optimization is carried out to improve the robot stiffness. Finally, calibration and workspace verification experiments are performed on the prototype, cutting experiment of an S-shaped aluminum alloy workpiece is completed, and the experiment verifies the machining ability of the prototype. This work conducts kinematics, workspace, force analyses, structural optimization design and experiments on the over-constrained hybrid manipulator R(2RPR)R/SP+RR, providing design basis and technical support for the development of the novel hybrid manipulator in practical engineering.
  • Mechanism and Robotics
    Qiang Ruan, Jianxu Wu, Yan-an Yao
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(3): 64-64.
    The paper proposes a novel multi-legged robot with pitch adjustive units aiming at obstacle surmounting. With only 6 degrees of freedom, the robot with 16 mechanical legs walks steadily and surmounts the obstacles on the complex terrain. The leg unit with adjustive pitch provides a large workspace and empowers the legs to climb up obstacles in large sizes, which enhances the obstacle surmounting capability. The pitch adjustment in leg unit requires as few independent adjusting actuators as possible. Based on the kinematic analysis of the mechanical leg, the biped and quadruped leg units with adjustive pitch are analyzed and compared. The configuration of the robot is designed to obtain a compact structure and pragmatic performance. The uncertainty of the obstacle size and position in the surmounting process is taken into consideration and the parameters of the adjustments and the feasible strategies for obstacle surmounting are presented. Then the 3D virtual model and the robot prototype are built and the multi-body dynamic simulations and prototype experiments are carried out. The results from the simulations and the experiments show that the robot possesses good obstacle surmounting capabilities.
  • Original Article
    Zhaojun Yang, Jinyan Guo, Hailong Tian, Chuanhai Chen, Yongfu Zhu, Jia Liu
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(1): 17-17.
    Heavy-duty machine tools are composed of many subsystems with different functions, and their reliability is governed by the reliabilities of these subsystems. It is important to rank the weaknesses of subsystems and identify the weakest subsystem to optimize products and improve their reliabilities. However, traditional ranking methods based on failure mode effect and critical analysis (FMECA) does not consider the complex maintenance of products. Herein, a weakness ranking method for the subsystems of heavy-duty machine tools is proposed based on generalized FMECA information. In this method, eight reliability indexes, including maintainability and maintenance cost, are considered in the generalized FMECA information. Subsequently, the cognition best worst method is used to calculate the weight of each screened index, and the weaknesses of the subsystems are ranked using a technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution. Finally, based on the failure data collected from certain domestic heavy-duty horizontal lathes, the weakness ranking result of the subsystems is obtained to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. An improved weakness ranking method that can comprehensively analyze and identify weak subsystems is proposed herein for designing and improving the reliability of complex electromechanical products.
  • Bingjun Yu, Linmao Qian
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(2): 32-32.
    As the bridge between basic principles and applications of nanotechnology, nanofabrication methods play significant role in supporting the development of nanoscale science and engineering, which is changing and improving the production and lifestyle of the human. Photo lithography and other alternative technologies, such as nanoimprinting, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam cutting, and scanning probe lithography, have brought great progress of semiconductor industry, IC manufacturing and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices. However, there remains a lot of challenges, relating to the resolution, cost, speed, and so on, in realizing high-quality products with further development of nanotechnology. None of the existing techniques can satisfy all the needs in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the same time, and it is essential to explore new nanofabrication methods. As a newly developed scanning probe microscope (SPM)-based lithography, friction-induced nanofabrication provides opportunities for maskless, flexible, low-damage, low-cost and environment-friendly processing on a wide variety of materials, including silicon, quartz, glass surfaces, and so on. It has been proved that this fabrication route provides with a broad application prospect in the fabrication of nanoimprint templates, microfluidic devices, and micro/nano optical structures. This paper hereby involved the principals and operations of friction-induced nanofabrication, including friction-induced selective etching, and the applications were reviewed as well for looking ahead at opportunities and challenges with nanotechnology development. The present review will not only enrich the knowledge in nanotribology, but also plays a positive role in promoting SPM-based nanofabrication.
  • Ke Wang, Ju Li, Huiping Shen, Jingjing You, Tingli Yang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 119-119.
    For the development of a parallel mechanism (PM), it is necessary to establish a dynamic model which can accurately meet the requirements of real-time control. Compared with the general dynamic analysis model based on the inverse kinematics, the dynamic analysis model based on the forward kinematics has the advantage of low-complexity. In this paper, a new type of 3-DOF PM with analytical forward displacement analysis is proposed. Different from the general dynamic analysis based on the inverse kinematics, the displacement, velocity and acceleration equations of the PM are established and solved by forward kinematics. The inverse dynamic equation of the PM is constructed and solved by analyzing the forces on each link and based on Newton-Euler method. Then the theoretical results of an example are compared with the simulation results, which shows that the simulation results are basically consistent with the theoretical results. And the maximum error of the driving force of each pair is 1.32%, 5.8% and 5.2%, respectively, which verifies the correctness of the dynamic model. The PM has a potential application prospect in the grasping, spraying and picking of workpieces. The research results of this paper provide a theoretical basis for the design, manufacture and application of the PM.
  • Meng Wang, Yimin Song, Panfeng Wang, Yuecheng Chen, Tao Sun
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 97-97.
    Multi-scale casting parts are important components of high-end equipment used in the aerospace, automobile manufacturing, shipbuilding, and other industries. Residual features such as parting lines and pouring risers that inevitably appear during the casting process are random in size, morphology, and distribution. The traditional manual processing method has disadvantages such as low efficiency, high labor intensity, and harsh working environment. Existing machine tool and serial robot grinding/cutting equipment do not easily achieve high-quality and high-efficiency removal of residual features due to poor dexterity and low stiffness, respectively. To address these problems, a five-degree-of-freedom (5-DoF) hybrid grinding/cutting robot with high dexterity and high stiffness is proposed. Based on it, three types of grinding/cutting equipment combined with offline programming, master-slave control, and other technologies are developed to remove the residual features of small, medium, and large casting parts. Finally, the advantages of teleoperation processing and other solutions are elaborated, and the difficulties and challenges are discussed. This paper reviews the grinding/cutting technology and equipment of casting parts and provides a reference for the research on the processing of multi-scale casting parts.
  • Review
    Di Shi, Wuxiang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xilun Ding
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2019, 32(4): 74-74.
    Lower limb rehabilitation exoskeleton robots integrate sensing, control, and other technologies and exhibit the characteristics of bionics, robotics, information and control science, medicine, and other interdisciplinary areas. In this review, the typical products and prototypes of lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robots are introduced and state-of-the-art techniques are analyzed and summarized. Because the goal of rehabilitation training is to recover patientso sporting ability to the normal level, studying the human gait is the foundation of lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robot research. Therefore, this review critically evaluates research progress in human gait analysis and systematically summarizes developments in the mechanical design and control of lower limb rehabilitation exoskeleton robots. From the performance of typical prototypes, it can be deduced that these robots can be connected to human limbs as wearable forms; further, it is possible to control robot movement at each joint to simulate normal gait and drive the patientos limb to realize robot-assisted rehabilitation training. Therefore human-robot integration is one of the most important research directions, and in this context, rigid-flexible-soft hybrid structure design, customized personalized gait generation, and multimodal information fusion are three key technologies.
  • Review
    Ling Fang, Feng Gao
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2018, 31(3): 59-59.
    The research on legged robots attracted much attention both from the academia and industry. Legged robots are multi-input multi-output with multiple end-effector systems. Therefore, the mechanical design and control framework are challenging issues. This paper reviews the development of type synthesis and behavior control on legged robots; introduces the hexapod robots developed in our research group based on the proposed type synthesis method. The control framework for legged robots includes data driven layer, robot behavior layer and robot execution layer. Each layer consists several components which are explained in details. Finally, various experiments were conducted on several hexapod robots. The summarization of the type synthesis and behavior control design constructed in this paper would provide a unified platform for communications and references for future advancement for legged robots.
  • Tao Peng, Qiqi He, Zheng Zhang, Baicun Wang, Xun Xu
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(3): 48-48.
    COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the re-shaping of globalized manufacturing industry. Achieving a high level of resilience is thereby a recognized, essential ability of future manufacturing systems with the advances in smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0. In this work, a conceptual framework for resilient manufacturing strategy enabled by Industrial Internet is proposed. It is elaborated as a four-phase, closed-loop process that centered on proactive industry assessment. Key enabling technologies for the proposed framework are outlined in data acquisition and management, big data analysis, intelligent services, and others. Industrial Internet-enabled implementations in China in response to COVID-19 have then been reviewed and discussed from 3Rsa€? perspective, i.e. manufacturer capacity Recovery, supply chain Resilience and emergency Response. It is suggested that an industry-specific and comprehensive selection coordinated with the guiding policy and supporting regulations should be performed at the national, at least regional level.
  • Original Article
    Ali Rajaei, Yuanbin Deng, Oliver Schenk, Soheil Rooein, Alexander Bezold, Christoph Broeckmann
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(6): 143-143.
    This paper presents a digital model for the powder metallurgical (PM) production chain of high-performance sintered gears based on an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) platform. Discrete and finite element methods (DEM and FEM) were combined to describe the macroscopic material response to the thermomechanical loads and process conditions during the entire production process. The microstructural evolution during the sintering process was predicted on the meso-scale using a Monte-Carlo Model. The effective elastic properties were determined by a homogenization method based on modelling a representative volume element (RVE). The results were subsequently used for the FE modelling of the heat treatment process. Through the development of multi-scale models, it was possible obtain characteristics of the microstructural features. The predicted hardness and residual stress distributions allowed the calculation of the tooth root load bearing capacity of the heat-treated sintered gears.
  • Special Issue on Healthcare Mechatronics
    Yan Shi, Qing Guo, Bin Zhang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(1): 16-16.
  • Yueling Guo, Lina Jia, Wenjun Lu, Hu Zhang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(5): 84-84.
    For hypereutectic Nb-Si based alloys, primary Nb5Si3 phases typically grow in a faceted mode during equilibrium or near-equilibrium solidification, which damages the ductility and toughness. To address this issue, here we artificially manipulate the growth morphology of Nb5Si3 using electron beam surface melting (EBSM) and subsequent annealing treatments. Results show that such a non-equilibrium solidification pathway enables the transition from faceted growth to non-faceted dendritic growth of Nb5Si3, along with evident microstructure refinement, generation of metastable β-Nb5Si3 phases and elimination of chemical segregation. The transformation from β-Nb5Si3 to α-Nb5Si3 and Nb solid solution (Nbss) particles is triggered by the annealing treatment at 1450 ℃ for 5 h. Also, we find the annealing-mediated formation of inherited Nb5Si3 dendrites that maintain the dendritic morphology of the original as-solidified β-Nb5Si3 dendrites. This work thus provides a feasible routine to obtain thermally stable and refined α-Nb5Si3 dendrites in hypereutectic Nb-Si based alloys.
  • Review
    Xiao-Min Zhao, Ye-Hwa Chen, Han Zhao, Fang-Fang Dong
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2018, 31(6): 106-106.
    There are many achievements in the field of analytical mechanics, such as Lagrange Equation, Hamilton's Principle, Kane's Equation. Compared to Newton-Euler mechanics, analytical mechanics have a wider range of applications and the formulation procedures are more mathematical. However, all existing methods of analytical mechanics were proposed based on some auxiliary variables. In this review, a novel analytical mechanics approach without the aid of Lagrange's multiplier, projection, or any quasi or auxiliary variables is introduced for the central problem of mechanical systems. Since this approach was firstly proposed by Udwadia and Kalaba, it was called Udwadia-Kalaba Equation. It is a representation for the explicit expression of the equations of motion for constrained mechanical systems. It can be derived via the Gauss's principle, d'Alembert's principle or extended d'Alembert's principle. It is applicable to both holonomic and nonholonomic equality constraints, as long as they are linear with respect to the accelerations or reducible to be that form. As a result, the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation can be applied to a very broad class of mechanical systems. This review starts with introducing the background by a brief review of the history of mechanics. After that, the formulation procedure of Udwadia-Kalaba Equation is given. Furthermore, the comparisons of Udwadia-Kalaba Equation with Newton-Euler Equation, Lagrange Equation and Kane's Equation are made, respectively. At last, three different types of examples are given for demonstrations.
  • Special Issue on Healthcare Mechatronics
    Na Wang, Qinghua Liu, Yan Shi, Shijun Wang, Xianzhi Zhang, Chengwei Han, Yixuan Wang, Maolin Cai, Xunming Ji
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(1): 23-23.
    Nowadays, mild hypothermia is widely used in the fields of post-cardiac arrest resuscitation, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, large-scale cerebral infarction, and craniocerebral injury. In this paper, a locally mixed sub-low temperature device is designed, and the cold and hot water mixing experiment is used to simulate the human blood transfer process. To set a foundation for the optimization of the heat transfer system, the static characteristics are analyzed by building the mathematic model and setting up the experimental station. In addition, the affection of several key structure parameters is researched. Through experimental and simulation studies, it can be concluded that, firstly, the mathematical model proved to be effective. Secondly, the results of simulation experiments show that 14.52 £C refrigeration can reduce the original temperature of 33.42 £C to 32.02 £C, and the temperature of refrigerated blood rises to 18.64 £C, and the average error is about 0.3 £C. Thirdly, as the thermal conductivity of the vascular sheath increases, the efficiency of the heat exchange system also increases significantly. Finally, as the input cold blood flow rate increases, the mass increases and the temperature of the mixed blood temperature decreases. It provides a research basis for subsequent research on local fixed-point sub-low temperature control technology.
  • Wenbo Chu, Qiqige Wuniri, Xiaoping Du, Qiuchi Xiong, Tai Huang, Keqiang Li
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2021, 34(5): 139-139.
    The electrification of vehicle helps to improve its operation efficiency and safety. Due to fast development of network, sensors, as well as computing technology, it becomes realizable to have vehicles driving autonomously. To achieve autonomous driving, several steps, including environment perception, path-planning, and dynamic control, need to be done. However, vehicles equipped with on-board sensors still have limitations in acquiring necessary environmental data for optimal driving decisions. Intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) cloud control system (CCS) has been introduced as a new concept as it is a potentially synthetic solution for high level automated driving to improve safety and optimize traffic flow in intelligent transportation. This paper systematically investigated the concept of cloud control system from cloud related applications on ICVs, and cloud control system architecture design, as well as its core technologies development. Based on the analysis, the challenges and suggestions on cloud control system development have been addressed.
  • Special Issue on Processing of Biological Tissue
    Kaijie Dong, Duanling Li, Xingyu Xue, Chang Xu, Haowei Wang, Xianming Gao
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2022, 35(3): 35-35.
    With the increasingly more extensive application of the medical surgical robot in the clinic, higher requirements have been put forward for medical robots. The bone-attached robot, a popular orthopedic robot in recent years, has a tendency of miniaturization and refinement. Thus, a bone-attached parallel manipulator (PM) based on 6-UCU (universal-cylindrical-universal) configuration is proposed, which is characterized by small volume, compact structure, high precision and six-dimensional force feedback. To optimize the structure and make it more compact, the workspace of the 6-UCU PM is analyzed based on the analysis of three kinds of constraint, and workspace model is established through spherical coordinate search method. This study also analyzes the influence of structural parameters on workspace, which may contribute to improving the efficiency of design and ensuring small-sized robots possess relatively large workspace. Moreover, to improve the motion accuracy, an error modeling method is developed based on the structure of 6-UCU PMs. According to this established error model, the output pose error curves are drawn using MATLAB software when the structure parameters change, and the influence of the structure and pose parameters change on the output pose error of PMs is analyzed. The proposed research provides the instruction to design and analysis of small PMs such as bone-attached robots.
  • 2023-4-25
    Weiming Xuan, Maodan Yuan, Xuanrong Ji, Wenjin Xu, Yan Chen, Lvming Zeng
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 31-31.
    The stress state is critical to the reliability of structures, but existing ultrasonic methods are challenging to measure local stress. In this paper, zero-group-velocity (ZGV) Lamb mode was proposed to measure the local stress field in thin aluminum plates. The Lamb wave's dispersive characteristics under initial stress were analyzed based on the Floquet-Bloch theory with Murnaghan hyperelastic material model. The obtained dispersion curves show that higher-order Lamb wave modes near the cut-off frequencies are sensitive to applied stress across the plate, indicating that the S1-ZGV mode has a rather high sensitivity to stress. Similar to conventional ultrasonic stress measurement, it is found that the frequency of the S1-ZGV mode changes near-linearly with the amplitude of applied stress. Numerical experiments were conducted to illustrate the feasibility of local stress measurement in a thin aluminum plate based on the S1-ZGV mode. Single and multiple localized stress fields were evaluated with the S1-ZGV method, and reconstructed results matched well with actual stress fields, proving that the ZGV Lamb wave method is a sensitive stress measurement technique in thin plates.
  • 2023-4-25
    Zhengfeng Yan, Hangsheng Li, Hairui Lei, Maoqing Xie, Leigang Wang
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 53-53.
    The friction judder characteristics during clutch engagement have a significant influence on the NVH of a driveline. In this research, the judder characteristics of automobile clutch friction materials and experimental verification are studied. First, considering the stick-slip phenomenon in the clutch engagement process, a detailed 9-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) model including the body, each cylinder of the engine, clutch and friction lining, torsional damper, transmission and other driveline parts is established, and the calculation formula of friction torque in the clutch engagement process is determined. Second, the influence of the friction gradient characteristics on the amplification or attenuation of the automobile friction judder is analyzed, and the corresponding stability analysis and the numerical simulation of different friction gradient values are carried out with MATLAB/Simulink software. Finally, judder bench test equipment and a corresponding damping test program are developed, and the relationship between the friction coefficient gradient characteristics and the system damping is analyzed. After a large number of tests, the evaluation basis of the test is determined. The research results show that the friction lining with negative gradient characteristics of the friction coefficient will have a judder signal. When the friction gradient value is less than -0.005 s/m, the judder signal of the measured clutch cannot be completely attenuated, and the judder phenomenon occurs. When the friction gradient is greater than - 0.005 s/m, the judder signal can be significantly suppressed and the system connection tends to be stable.
  • 2023-4-25
    Lianzheng Niu, Sheng Guo, Majun Song, Yifan Wu, Haibo Qu
    Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2023, 36(2): 65-65.
    Power-assisted upper-limb exoskeletons are primarily used to improve the handling efficiency and load capacity. However, kinematic mismatch between the kinematics and biological joints is a major problem in most existing exoskeletons, because it reduces the boosting effect and causes pain and long-term joint damage in humans. In this study, a shoulder augmentation exoskeleton was designed based on a parallel mechanism that solves the shoulder dislocation problem using the upper arm as a passive limb. Consequently, the human–machine synergy and wearability of the exoskeleton system were improved without increasing the volume and weight of the system. A parallel mechanism was used as the structural body of the shoulder joint exoskeleton, and its workspace, dexterity, and stiffness were analyzed. Additionally, an ergonomic model was developed using the principle of virtual work, and a case analysis was performed considering the lifting of heavy objects. The results show that the upper arm reduces the driving force requirement in coordinated motion, enhances the load capacity of the system, and achieves excellent assistance.