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  • MENG Fan-ying, ZHANG Yi-fan, YANG Jia-hui, ZHANG Wei, WANG Lin, WU Jun-xia, LI Pei-you
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 20-27. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0588
    The traditional catalytic alloy materials are mostly precious metals, while the high-entropy alloy catalytic materials reported in recent years are mostly cheap metal materials, and some of them have better catalytic properties than the traditional precious metals. This paper will systematically review the five aspects of electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction(HER), electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction(OER), ammonia decomposition reaction(NH3), electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction(ORR), electrocatalytic carbon monoxide reduction(CORR) and electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction(CO2RR). Finally, the catalytic properties of the high-entropy alloys are summarized and the future research directions are prospected.
  • GONG Hao, CHENG Dong-hai, XUE Xing-yan, LI Hai-tao, LI Wen-jie, LIU Zhao-ze, LIAO Huan-jian
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(7): 182-188. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0610
    With Mo sheet as buffer layer, AgCuTi filler metal was used to braze quartz glass and TC4 titanium alloy, so as to control the difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the quartz glass and the TC4 alloy and reduce the stress of the brazing joint on the quartz glass side. The effect of Mo buffer layer on stress relief and microstructure and properties of the brazed joint was analyzed. The results show that the addition of Mo buffer layer can adjust the difference of thermal expansion coefficient between the quartz glass and the TC4, transfer the stress of the brazing joint on the quartz glass side to the Mo buffer layer, reduce the stress on the quartz glass side, and improve the performance of the brazing joint. At the same time, the addition of Mo buffer layer can prevent the diffusion of dissolved Ti element in TC4 base metal to the quartz glass side, weaken the reaction on the quartz glass side, and reduce the thickness of the thin reaction layer near the quartz glass side. When the brazing temperature is 900℃ and the holding time is 10 min, the shear strength of the brazed joint with Mo buffer layer is the highest, reaching 37 MPa.
  • ZHANG Zhi-kun, ZHAN Qin, DOU Zhi-ang, BAI Jing-yuan, YANG Hong-guang
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 149-155. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0183
    The plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method was used to deposit silicon nitride thin films on p-type<100>silicon wafers. The uniformity and compactness of the films were characterized through spectroscopic ellipsometry(SE) and buffered oxide etching(BOE) solution dissolution experiments. The effects of four process parameters, including radio frequency(RF) power, chamber pressure, gas flow ratio and substrate temperature, on the properties of the silicon nitride thin films were studied. The results show that in the range of 60-100 W, the higher the RF power, the faster the growth rate of the silicon nitride thin films. A chamber pressure of 130 Pa is conducive to the formation of uniform and dense silicon nitride thin films. When the flow rate ratio of silane/ammonia gas is low, increasing the flow rate ratio can increase the compactness of the film, but the compactness hardly changes when the ratio exceeds 1.4. When the substrate temperature is between 200-300℃, the higher the substrate temperature, the lower the growth rate of the thin films and the higher the compactness. The optimal process parameters are:RF power of 100 W, chamber pressure of 130 Pa, silane flow rate of 280 mL/min, ammonia flow rate of 10 mL/min, substrate temperature of 300℃. The growth rate of the silicon nitride thin films prepared by the optimal process parameters is 16.3 nm/min, uniformity is 0.07%, refractive index is 2.1, and dissolution rate is 0.42 nm/s.
  • LIU Bao-fa, HU Jian-nan, SHI Jun-jie, GAO Xuan-wen, LI Jian-zhong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(5): 86-94. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0539
    There is metastable phase structure in TC4 titanium alloy manufactured by additive, which has obvious influence on microstructure and corrosion resistance of the alloy. Based on this, the heat treatment of the TC4 titanium alloy manufactured by additive was carried out by different processes. The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure, residual stress and corrosion resistance of the TC4 titanium alloy manufactured by additive were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), residual stress measurement and electrochemical analysis. The results show that the heat treatment process has an important influence on the microstructure of the TC4 titanium alloy. When the titanium alloy is heat treated at above 940℃ for 1 h and cooled, the microstructure changes from metastable α' phase to α+β phase and a small amount of secondary α phase, and compared with furnace cooling, titanium alloy under water cooling condition has higher β phase content. When the heat treatment temperature is 800, 940 and 1080℃, the residual stress on the surface of the titanium alloy is relatively low. The corrosion resistance of the titanium alloy is closely related to the microstructure and residual stress. The finer the α phase grain, the higher the β phase content, the greater the residual compressive stress and the better the corrosion resistance of the alloy. When the heat treatment temperature is 1020℃, the residual compressive stress on the surface of the titanium alloy is 470 MPa, and the corrosion resistance is good.
  • MEI Wan-wan, LI Quan-an, CHEN Xiao-ya
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(4): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0467
    With the rapid development of computer technology, the methods of first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation play an important role in material design and mechanism research. This paper summarizes the application of first-principles calculation in magnesium alloys, such as generalized stacking fault energy, lattice constant, elastic constant and crack formation energy. It also summarizes the application of molecular dynamics simulation in magnesium alloys, such as the evolution and migration of twin boundaries, the interaction between twin boundaries and dislocations and grain boundaries, the influence of element segregation on the interface, and the interaction behavior between precipitates and twin boundaries. The application status and limitations of first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation in the magnesium alloys research are discussed, and the development prospect of atomic scale calculation and simulation research of the magnesium alloys is prospected.
  • WANG Xue-qing, XIAO Xiao, MENG Ling-ran, ZHANG Chi, ZHANG Shuai-feng, GE Xue-yuan
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 1-15. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0009
    As one of the most promising lightweight structural materials, magnesium alloys have excellent castability, machinability, biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties, and have been widely used in many fields such as automotive manufacturing, aerospace, and biomedicine. With the demand onlightweight, the development of magnesium alloy integral components has become an emerging trend. However, the integral components usually have the characteristics of large scale and complex structure. Compared with traditional manufacturing processes, wire and arc additive manufacturing has the characteristics of high deposition rate, low cost, and high material utilization rate, providing the possibility to prepare large magnesium alloy components. Therefore, the wire and arc additive manufacturing of magnesium alloy has received a lot of attentions. This article mainly summarizes the research progress in wire and arc additive manufacturing of magnesium alloy from three aspects. Firstly, different process methods of wire and arc additive manufacturing technology are introduced; secondly, the research status of wire and arc additive manufacturing of magnesium alloy is introduced, including molding quality, microstructure and properties; finally, the possible challenges faced by magnesium alloy wire and arc additive manufacturing are summarized, providing a reference for further research and applications of magnesium alloy wire and arc additive manufacturing technology.
  • HONG Xiao-long, HUANG Ben-sheng, LI Tian-ning, HUANG Si-yu
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(5): 25-38. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0481
    The numerical simulation of welding can realize the simulation of complex welding phenomena, reveal the essence and laws of welding phenomena, optimize the structure and process design, reduce the actual workload and improve the quality of welded joints by quantitative analysis of complex or unobservable phenomena and prediction of the laws that are not known under extreme conditions. However, due to the increasingly complex welding situation faced by welding technology in engineering, and the heat source model as the "soul" of welding numerical simulation, the reasonable selection and development of new welding heat source model is particularly important. Therefore, research on the development of welding simulation heat source model, secondary development and determination of heat source parameters have guiding significance for future engineering applications. In this paper, the development of heat source model in numerical simulation of gas shielded metal arc welding, plasma arc welding and laser-arc hybrid welding in recent years is systematically reviewed, the research progress of heat source model based on secondary development is introduced, the determination method of heat source parameters is summarized, and the future research focus of welding heat source model is pointed out.
  • SHI Yin-hui, LI Jie, LIU Kun, ZOU Jia-sheng, YU Wen-ming, Gizo Bokuchava
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 1-10. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0529
    Wire arc additive manufacturing(WAAM) has become one of the important development directions in the field of equipment manufacturing. During WAAM, the metal wires are melted by arc heating and the additive manufacturing forming of three-dimensional solid metal components can be completed by stacking layer by layer on the preset path. The WAAM has the advantages of high efficiency and low cost, especially suitable for the integrated additive manufacturing forming of large-scale aluminum alloy components. However, due to the inherent metallurgical behavior of the aluminum alloys, metallurgical defects, such as porosity and cracks, are easy to occur in the aluminum alloys prepared by WAAM, which greatly limits the further improvement of mechanical properties of products, and also seriously restricts the efficient and high-quality development of WAAM aluminum alloys. In this paper, the problems of metallurgical defects such as porosity and crack in the aluminum alloys prepared by WAAM are reviewed, the research progress in the formation mechanism, influencing factors and inhibition measures of defects are summarized, and the future development direction of aluminum alloy wire arc additive manufacturing technology is prospected.
  • YANG Xing, WANG Hua, XU Feng, LI Jiang-hua, ZHANG Lei
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(4): 157-168. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0437
    In order to investigate the influence of laser power on microstructure and properties of cladding layer, FeCoNiCrMo high entropy alloy cladding layer was prepared on the surface of 42CrMo steel by using six kinds of laser power. Microstructure, phase, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the cladding layer were studied by means of X-ray diffractometer(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer(EDS) analysis, Vickers microhardness tester, stress analyzer, friction and wear tester and electrochemical workstation. The results show that the microstructure of the FeCoNiCrMo layer prepared by laser cladding is mainly FCC solid solution phase. When the laser power is greater than 1.6 kW, BCC phase(α-Fe) structure appears in the cladding layer, showing dendrite microstructure with martensite in the dendrite and Cr-and Mo-containing ferrite located between dendrites. With the increase of laser power, the hardness of the cladding layer first increases and then decreases, reaching a maximum of 522 HV0.3 at 1.6 kW. When the laser power is 1.8 kW, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the cladding layer are the best, and the wear rate and self corrosion current density are 0.71×10-5 g·N-1·m-1 and 1.69×10-9 A·cm-2, respectively. Laser power is an important factor that affects the microstructure and properties of the FeCoNiCrMo high entropy alloy layer. Increasing laser power is conducive to promoting the formation of BCC phase, significantly improving the mechanical properties and anti-corrosion properties of the cladding layer.
  • PANG Xian-juan, YUE Shi-wei, HUANG Su-ling, XIE Jin-meng, WANG Shuai, SONG Chen-fei, YUE Yun, LIU Jian, LI Dong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 43-50. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0211
    Polyether ether ketone(PEEK) has excellent comprehensive properties such as good self-lubricating property, high temperature resistance and hydrolysis resistance due to its unique structure. However, as one of the representatives of special engineering plastics, due to its high molding temperature, the ordinary plastic molding methods and cavity grinding tools are difficult to meet the preparation requirements of PEEK. In view of this, pure PEEK material was prepared by vacuum hot pressing sintering technology at different sintering temperatures. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the material were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared(IR) spectra and thermogravimetry(TG) analysis, and the friction and wear properties of the material were analyzed by multifunctional friction and wear testing machine, three-dimensional profilometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the sintering temperature does not change the structure of the PEEK material, and has little effect on its thermal properties. With the increase of sintering temperature, the hardness of the PEEK material slightly increases and its thermal stability improves to a certain extent. When the sintering temperature is 350℃, the PEEK material has the best tensile and friction and wear properties, with tensile strength, elastic modulus and wear rate of 65.15 MPa, 6.42 GPa, and 0.513×10-4 mm3/(N·m), respectively.
  • GONG Zhi-peng, HE Tian-tian, LI Lin-fang, DU San-ming, ZHANG Yong-zhen, ZHANG Peng-jie
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(5): 123-134. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0506
    Firstly, GCr15 bearing steel was heat treated by quenching and tempering at different temperatures and quenching + cryogenic + tempering treatment, and the GCr15 bearing steel samples with retained austenite contents of 6.2, 11.2, 17.5 and 26.4 vol% were obtained. Then, friction and wear experiments were carried out on the samples with heavy-duty reciprocating friction and wear tester under dry friction and oil lubrication conditions, and the effect of retained austenite content on sliding friction and wear properties of the GCr15 bearing steel was studied. Microstructure, surface morphology and mechanical properties of the GCr15 bearing steel samples in different states were analyzed by means of X-ray diffractometer(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray residual stress analyzer and Rockwell hardness tester. The results show that the microstructure of the GCr15 bearing steel is composed of martensite, retained austenite and carbide after heat treatment by different processes. With the increase of retained austenite content, the surface hardness of the GCr15 bearing steel decreases gradually, and the residual compressive stress decreases gradually and tends to be stable. Under the dry friction condition, the average friction coefficient of the cryogenic treatment sample is the smallest. Under the condition of oil lubrication, the average friction coefficient of the four groups of samples has little difference and is lower than 0.08. Under the conditions of dry friction and oil lubrication, the wear rate of the GCr15 bearing steel increases first and then decreases with the increase of retained austenite content, and the wear rate reaches the maximum when the quenching temperature is 865℃. The content of retained austenite of the sample after cryogenic treatment is the smallest of 6.2 vol%, and its wear rate is also the smallest, indicating that cryogenic treatment can improve the friction and wear properties of the GCr15 bearing steel. The wear mechanisms of the GCr15 bearing steel are abrasive wear, adhesive wear and oxidation wear under dry friction condition, and abrasive wear and adhesive wear under oil lubrication condition.
  • XIA Gao-ling, YANG Yin-hui, LI Zhao-zhong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 202-210. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0656
    Effect of different welding heat input on corrosion resistance of heat affected zone(HAZ) of ultra-low Ni duplex stainless steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation(DL-EPR) method, and microstructure of the HAZ was characterized by means of optical microscope(OM) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The results show that after heat input, the corrosion resistant elements Cr and Mo in the heat affected zone can not fully diffuse to ferrite(δ) due to the faster cooling rate, resulting in the pitting equivalent value(PREN) of δ phase is lower than that of austenite(γ). In the range of heat input from 8.48 to 25.42 kJ/cm, the pitting resistance of the HAZ is reduced due to the appearance of Widmanstatten austenite(WA) and the precipitation of Cr2N in the δ phase, and the pitting corrosion is mainly concentrated in the δ phase. When the heat input is 29.35 kJ/cm, the cooling rate decreases, resulting in the decrease of WA in the heat affected zone and Cr2N in δ phase, and the maximum pitting potential Eb of 0.26 V is obtained. The increase of the content of intracrystalline grain boundary austenite(IGA) and grain boundary austenite(GBA) in the heat affected zone and the coarsening of its size reduce the number of γ/δ two-phase interfaces and cover part of δ/δ grain boundary, so that the minimum intergranular sensitivity value Ra of 58.3% is obtained in the heat affected zone, which has good resistance to intergranular corrosion.
  • LIU Shuai, YAN Ying, WANG Bin, ZHANG Peng, ZHOU Xiang-hai, ZHENG Lei-gang, HU Xiao-qiang, LI Xiao-wu, ZHANG Zhe-feng
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 90-99. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0601
    Microstructure, mechanical properties and impact toughness of 42CrMoVRE steel after heat treatment by different processes were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, tensile and impact testing machines. The results show that the microstructure of the experimental steel after oil quenching+high temperature tempering is tempered sorbite, the microstructure after normalizing+oil quenching+high temperature tempering is tempered sorbite+a small amount of acicular ferrite, and the microstructure after normalizing+oil quenching+low temperature tempering is tempered martensite. The normalizing treatment before quenching can effectively refine the ferrite grains and carbides, thus improving the contribution of fine grain strengthening and precipitation strengthening to strength. The lower tempering temperature significantly increases the strength of the experimental steel, and the main strengthening mechanism is fine grain strengthening and dislocation strengthening, but seriously reduces the impact toughness. The polygonal ferrite in the experimental steel after oil quenching+high temperature tempering can better inhibit the crack growth, and the impact toughness is high. The acicular ferrite in the experimental steel after normalizing+oil quenching+high temperature tempering has a small crack propagation resistance, resulting in a reduction in the impact toughness. The tempered martensite in the experimental steel after normalizing+oil quenching+low temperature tempering has a high residual stress, resulting in easy crack initiation and propagation, so the impact toughness is the lowest.
  • CUI Zhong-yi, LIANG Li-si, QIAO Jiang-yu, CHEN Jin, LI Yi, ZHANG Li-xing
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 16-33. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0041
    The research progress in the preparation of foam glass, glass-ceramics and foam glass-ceramics from domestic metal tailings and metallurgical waste slag is reviewed. Among metal tailings, iron tailings have been widely studied in the field of preparing new types of glass due to their high SiO2 content and huge reserves. Among metallurgical waste slag, blast furnace slag, steel slag, and nickel slag have been studied extensively. These three types of waste slag have large reserves and contain foaming agents(such as S) and crystal nucleation agents(such as TiO2), which are beneficial for the preparation of new types of glass. The prospects for the preparation of new types of glass from metallurgical solid waste are prospected. Metallurgical solid waste has great raw material advantages in the preparation of new types of glass, and the prepared new type of glass products also have some special properties(such as the shape memory effect of tungsten tailings glass-ceramics, the wave absorption performance of iron tailings glass-ceramics, etc.), which can broaden its application range. The research is expected to solve the problem of metallurgical solid waste treatment, and achieve resource recycling.
  • ZHENG Jin-tao, ZHANG Wen-hu, DENG Si-er, XU Hai-feng
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2020, 41(2): 133-141. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2019-0381
    Based on the coupling model of electromagnetic field, temperature field, microstructure field and stress/strain field, the induction hardening process of inner ring of double row spherical roller bearing was simulated by DEFORM software, and the quenching process of sectional current density was put forward. The temperature change, microstructure evolution, surface and subsurface hardness, residual stress and retained austenite during induction hardening of spherical roller bearing inner ring were studied. The results show that the induction hardening method of sectional current density can make the hardened layer of the inner ring of the bearing distribute uniformly, the heating efficiency increases with the increase of current density of coil, and the temperature at the cusp position changes sharply. After quenching, the retained austenite content on the raceway surface is about 6.97%, the martensite content is about 92.3%, the surface hardness is about 60.9 HRC, and the thickness of the raceway hardened layer is about 2.97 mm. After cryogenic treatment, the retained austenite content and residual stress decrease, the martensite content and hardness increase, the residual stress distributes symmetrically along the radial plane of the center of the inner ring, and the residual stress in the subsurface layer is the largest. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
  • SONG Feng-yu, LIU Si-yuan, ZHANG Yuan-xiang
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2020, 41(11): 173-178. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2020-0216
    Three 780 MPa grade weld metals with different composition were prepared in laboratory by gas shielded welding, and the effect of Ti, B on microstructure transformation of the 780 MPa grade weld metals was analyzed. The results show that the lath bainite structure is nucleated and arranged parallelly at the austenite grain boundary in the Si, Mn series weld metal. When the Ti element is added to the weld metal, the inclusions are composed of the Mn, Si, Ti oxide and becomes the nucleation site of the lath bainite, and the lath bainite is cross-arranged with each other. When the Ti and B elements are added to the weld metal, the proportion of Ti oxide in the inclusions increases, and the lath bainite returns to the parallel arrangement.
  • LIU Zhi-yuan, FANG Xiang, GUO Sheng-dong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(4): 112-120. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0580
    Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and stress rupture properties of two low-Re nickel based single crystal superalloys(1.0Re alloy and 1.5Re alloy) was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and creep testing machine. The results show that during long-term aging at 980 ℃ for 1000 h, the γ′ phase of the alloy coarsens and connects, and the coarsening rate of γ′ phase of the 1.0Re alloy is higher than that of the 1.5Re alloy. TCP phase is not precipitated in the two alloys during long-term aging at 980 ℃, and both alloys show good microstructural stability. The results of stress rupture test show that the stress rupture life of the 1.0Re and 1.5Re alloys aged for 200 h at 1038 ℃/172 MPa is 16.8% and 13.3% higher than that of the heat treated alloy, respectively. With the increase of long-term aging time, the stress rupture life of the two alloys decreases slightly. After long-term aging for 1000 h, the stress rupture life of the 1.0Re and 1.5Re alloys decreases by 15.8% and 14.9% respectively compared with that of the heat treated alloy. The stress rupture life of the two alloys is similar under the three conditions, which shows that the replacing 0.5%Re with 0.5%W has the same strengthening effect.
  • LI Cheng-ze, YOU Jun-hua, BAI He-shan, ZHANG Wei-wei, LIU Su-jie
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2020, 41(5): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2019-0525
    The high-entropy alloy has become a research focus of a large number of scholars because of its excellent performance, and the heat treatment can effectively eliminate the structural defects and residual stress in the as-cast high-entropy alloy so as to effectively improve its performance. The research status of heat treatment of high-entropy alloy at home and abroad is reviewed in this paper. The effects of heat treatment on the mechanical properties, wear-resisting property and corrosion resistance of high-entropy alloy are discussed from the aspects of the precipitation, the phase structure, the microstructure and so on, and the problems needing attention in the heat treatment process of high entropy alloys are put forward in order to provide reference for the research of high entropy alloys.
  • LI Wang-hao, WU Chao-xin, CHEN Zhi-hong, PENG Cheng-xin
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(1): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0061
    Lithium-ion battery has high energy density and power density, and occupies an important position in the current battery market. However, the shortage of lithium resources and the high price limit its development. Due to the advantages of low cost and high safety of zinc metal anode, zinc metal battery has attracted extensive attention. However, the problems of dendrite, corrosion, passivation and so on that zinc metal anode encounters in the charging-discharging process seriously damage its performance. In this paper, based on the main challenges faced by zinc metal anode at present, the strategy progress of improving zinc metal anode in recent years is analyzed to provide reference for the application of high-performance zinc metal anode.
  • TAO Cheng, CHENG Xiao-nong, XU Fu-hai, LI Zhi-qiang, LIU Guang-lei, XIE Shu-kuan, KUANG Zhong-hua, GUO Yong, LU: Peng
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 159-166. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0582
    The aging process plays a crucial role in the final heat treatment strengthening effect of die-casting aluminum silicon alloy. The effect of the interaction between aging temperature and time on the microhardness, tensile strength and elongation of the die-casting aluminum silicon alloy was studied using response surface method, and Matlab genetic algorithm was used for the multi-objective optimization of the mechanical properties of the alloy, together with the design of the ageing process parameters. The results show that the response surface method combined with the design optimization method of Matlab multi-objective genetic algorithm can establish an accurate model, and the error between the predicted value and the actual value is less than 5%. Depending on the model, the optimal process parameters corresponding to different target requirements can be quickly obtained. After aging treatment by the optimized aging process, the microstructure of the alloy is uniform, the tensile strength and hardness are significantly improved, and the elongation is slightly decreased.
  • CENG Jin, LI Ke-jian, GAO Xiang, LIU Bo, CAO Peng-jun, MA Ming-tu
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(7): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0630
    Quenching and partitioning(Q&P) steel belongs to the third generation of advanced high-strength steel for automobiles, and is widely used in the fields of automobiles and special equipment. Alloying elements can improve the carbon atom partitioning, grain size, microstructure distribution and transformation temperature point of the Q&P steel, thus improving the comprehensive properties of the Q&P steel. This paper summarizes the research progress on the effect of microalloying elements on the microstructure and properties of the Q&P steel, decribes the theoretical development of the Q&P steel, and expounds the relationship between the alloy composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the Q&P steel. Finally, the future development trend of microalloying of the Q&P steel is prospected.
  • LI Mei-yan, ZHANG Qi, HAN Bin, WANG Jia-lin
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2019, 40(1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2018-0338
    Because of its high mixing entropy, high entropy alloy with multi-principal elements has the advantages of simple structure solid solution, excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, as well as good ductility, therefore its plastic deformation behavior and deformation mechanism have attracted wide attention. The microstructure, mechanical properties, friction and wear properties and corrosion resistance of high entropy alloy were discussed. The research status of plastic deformation properties, deformation mechanism and grain refinement mechanism of high entropy alloy under quasi-static and dynamic deformation conditions was reviewed. Finally, the existing problems in the study of plastic deformation behavior of high entropy alloy are pointed out and the research direction of plastic deformation theory is prospected, which provides a reference for expanding the application field of high entropy alloy.
  • GUO Yu-chen, JIA Fei-hong, ZOU Xiang-yu, WEI Xue-ling, BAO Wei-wei, LI Wen-hu
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 46-53. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0623
    MoSe2/CoSe2 heterostructure electrocatalyst was in-situ constructed on molybdenum mesh(MF) by one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The phase and morphology of the MoSe2/CoSe2 heterostructure were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), and the hydrogen evolution reaction(HER) performance of the electrocatalyst was tested in 1 mol/L KOH electrolyte. The results show that the MoSe2/CoSe2@MF-2 is a dendritic array heterostructure. At the current density of 10 mA/cm~2, its HER overpotential is 172.3 mV, and the Tafel slope is 45.8 mV/dec, showing good HER performance and structural stability. The successful construction of the heterostructure electrocatalyst provides a good idea and research basis for the study and application of the subsequent selenide heterojunction in electrocatalysis.
  • HE Kai, CHEN Yi-ping, CHENG Dong-hai, HU De-an, DENG Cheng-min, XUE Xing-yan, LI Zheng-bing
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2019, 40(7): 172-176. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2019-0040
    By adding Ag particles to SnAgCu matrix solder, the purpose of low temperature connection and high temperature service could be realized by instantaneous liquid phase connection. The results show that with the increase of Ag content, the spreading area of the composite solder is smaller and the wettability is worse, but the wetting angle of the sample with 25%Ag content is 5°, which still meets the service requirements. With the increase of Ag content, the overall thickness of intermetallic compound layer increases and the mechanical properties become worse and worse. With the increase of Ag content, the service ability of high temperature resistance is improved, the sample with the Ag content of 25% can serve for 15 days without fracture at a high temperature of 83 ℃ above the substrate temperature, and the tensile strength is 25.74 MPa after 15 days of service at 300 ℃ high temperature, and the experiment achieves the purpose of low temperature aging and high temperature service.
  • JIN Chuan-wei, ZHANG Ji-ming, WU Yuan-yuan
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 143-149. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0574
    Martensite and austenite(MA) islands thin film samples of acicular ferrite X65 pipeline steel were accurately prepared by focused ion beam(FIB) etching method. The substructure of MA islands was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction(EBSD) technique and transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and the role of MA islands in fatigue crack propagation was studied. The results show that the MA content in the acicular ferrite X65 pipeline steel is about 5.7%, and MA islands are mainly distributed at grain boundary, with size ≤ 3 μm. The internal substructure of MA islands is divided into several blocks with different sizes by martensite and retained austenite. The retained austenite and martensite distribute alternately in the MA islands, and there is a coherent relationship between martensite and austenite in some areas. The alternately distribution of retained austenite and martensite in MA islands has a significant inhibition effect on fatigue crack propagation. When the fatigue crack propagation path encounters MA islands, the main crack propagation direction deflects and bypasses MA islands, while the branch crack is captured by MA islands and stops propagation.
  • FENG Han, LI Jia-xin, CHEN Peng-qi, ZHANG Dong-ya, CHENG Ji-gui
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(7): 141-148. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0050
    Fe-xCu-0.7C(x=10, 15, 20 and 25 mass%) powder metallurgy bearing materials were prepared by pressing and sintering using a mixture of reduced iron powder, electrolytic copper powder and flake graphite powder as raw materials. Microstructure, hardness, crushing strength and friction and wear properties of the sintered samples were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, Rockwell hardness tester, universal material testing machine and friction and wear tests. The influence of Cu content on the porosity, microstructure and mechanical properties of the sintered samples was analyzed. The results show that the microstructure of the sintered samples is mainly composed of pearlite, ferrite, Cu phase and pores. As the Cu content increases from 10% to 25%, the open porosity and hardness of the sintered samples decrease, the crushing strength first increases and then decreases, and the friction coefficient and volume wear amount first decrease and then increase. When the Cu content is 15 mass%, the comprehensive properties of the Fe-15Cu-0.7C sintered sample are good, with density, hardness, crushing strength, friction coefficient and volume wear of 6.14 g/cm3, 51.81 HRB, 419.96 MPa, 0.23 and 0.2145 mm3, respectively.
  • WU Mei-ling, YIN Yu-hang, DING Dong-hai, XIAO Guo-qing, DUAN Feng, PENG Kai, YANG Pan, ZHANG Li, JING Chen
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(5): 1-15. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0500
    Diamond tools are usually prepared by hot pressing sintering method, but this method has many shortcomings, such as high energy consumption, weak holding force between binder and diamond, and graphite mold polluting the environment. Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis(SHS) not only has the advantages of high efficiency and energy saving, but also the instantaneous high temperature generated in the reaction process helps to form carbides on the diamond surface, which can enable the binder to form a chemical metallurgical combination with the diamond. Therefore, SHS preparation of diamond tools has received extensive attention. Firstly, based on the thermodynamic parameters(adiabatic temperature) of related systems, the feasibility of SHS for preparing diamond tools is analyzed. The effects of raw material ratio, diluent, diamond concentrations and arrangement in the green bodies, ignition method and carbide formation on diamond tool materials prepared by SHS in Ni-Al, Ti-Al and Fe-Al systems are reviewed. Then, the properties of the as-prepared diamond tool materials are compared. Finally, the potential research directions of diamond tool materials prepared by SHS are prospected, and the methods to inhibit diamond graphitization in the SHS reaction are proposed.
  • LI Yu, XU Wang-hui, XIE Wei-feng, YU Chen, ZHAO Rong-ze
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(9): 188-194. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0060
    In view of the problems of coarse grain size and poor tensile properties of 304 stainless steel narrow gap TIG(tungsten inert gas welding) welded joint, the ultrasonic vibration head was applied to the test plate, and the ultrasonic vibration was introduced into the TIG welding process to weld it. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were studied. The results show that after the introduction of ultrasonic vibration, under the combined effect of thermodynamics and dynamics, the weld penetration increases, the transformation rate of columnar crystal to equiaxed crystal in the weld zone increases, the proportion of equiaxed crystal increases, and the grain is refined. Compared with conventional TIG, the introduction of ultrasonic vibration improves the weld microstructure of the 304 stainless steel narrow gap welded joint, improves its mechanical properties, significantly improves the hardness of the weld zone, close to the base metal, and the tensile strength and yield strength of the welded joint are also higher than that of conventional TIG welded joint, and the elongation is also improved. When the ultrasonic amplitude is 40 μm, the tensile strength of the welded joint is the highest of 674 MPa, the yield strength is 376 MPa, and the elongation is 25%.
  • LIANG Ya-xin, CAI Xin, ZHENG Lei-gang, HU Xiao-qiang, LI Dian-zhong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 106-114. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0018
    Effect of secondary tempering temperature on microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stress of 42CrMo4M steel was studied by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer. The results show that after secondary tempering, the martensite lath in the 42CrMo4M steel further recovers and recrystallizes, and the dislocation density decreases significantly. The long strip shape carbides gradually spheroidize and coarsen, transforming into granular morphology. With the secondary tempering temperature increases, the yield strength and tensile strength of the 42CrMo4M steel show a trend of first increasing and then significantly decreasing, while the change in plasticity and toughness is relatively small. After secondary tempering at 660℃, the impact absorbed energy of the 42CrMo4M steel at-20℃ slightly increases from 111 J after quenching and tempering treatment to 120 J, with an increase of only 9 J. In addition, with the increase of secondary tempering temperature, the residual stress in the 42CrMo4M steel shows a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. After secondary tempering at 640℃, the residual stress in the 42CrMo4M steel is the lowest of 111.7 MPa, which is about 26.75% lower than that of 152.5 MPa after quenching and tempering treatment.
  • LI Yu-sheng, SONG Ke-yang, YU Kai, ZHANG Mai-cang
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(4): 102-111. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0419
    Effect of solution treatment at different temperatures and solution and double aging treatment on impact properties of GH4151 alloy was studied by impact test. Microstructure, precipitates and fracture surface morphology of the GH4151 alloy treated by different processes were observed by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that for the alloy subjected to only solution treatment, when the solution treatment temperature is lower than 1140 ℃, the impact toughness of the alloy has little change, and when the solution temperature is higher than 1140 ℃, the impact toughness increases with the increase of solution temperature. The fracture process is dominated by the stable crack propagation zone, and the fracture surface is ductile fracture. For the alloy treated by solution treatment and aging, when the solution temperature is lower than 1160 ℃, the change of impact toughness is relatively stable, and when the solution temperature is higher than 1160 ℃, the impact toughness decreases with the increase of solution temperature. There is no stable crack propagation zone in the fracture process, and the fracture surface is a typical intergranular brittle fracture. This is mainly because when the solution temperature is lower than 1140 ℃, the grain size of the alloy does not change much, but when the temperature is higher than 1140 ℃, the grain size increases obviously. After two-stage aging, when the solution temperature is higher than 1160 ℃, the continuous or discontinuous second phase on the grain boundary significantly reduces the impact toughness of the alloy.
  • RAO Cheng-jie, WAN Wei-cai, WANG Peng, JI Si-yuan, PENG Zhuo-hao, LIU Zi-jing, QIN Yun, WANG Zong-yuan, WANG Jie, HUANG Cong, XU Shi-fa
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(4): 13-23. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0458
    As one of the earliest used materials in the world, ceramics have excellent comprehensive properties and are widely used in aerospace, industrial production and so on. However, due to its poor processability, hard and brittleness, it is often connected with metal to form a composite structure in practical production and application. Choosing a suitable connection technology becomes the key to determine the good or poor performance of ceramics/metals. The progress of human society has also made great progress in the methods of welding ceramics/metals. Among many welding methods, diffusion welding is recognized as one of the best methods to connect ceramics and metals. This paper mainly summarizes the research status of diffusion welding of ceramics/metals at home and abroad, and puts forward the problems existing in diffusion welding of ceramics/metals and some improved methods.
  • LI Si-bo, WAN Xiang-liang, DONG Zhi-chao, HU Feng, ZHOU Song-bo, YANG Die, LI Guang-qiang, WU Kai-ming
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(6): 109-119. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0598
    Microstructural evolution and impact toughness of coarse grain heat-affected zone of ultra-high strength steel for offshore structure under simulated welding conditions with different heat input were studied, and the austenite grain growth and bainite transformation behavior during simulated welding thermal cycle were observed in situ with ultra-high temperature laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that with the increase of heat input, the holding time in the high temperature stage becomes longer, which makes the primary austenite grains in the coarse grain heat-affected zone coarser, and the decrease of cooling rate in the middle temperature stage makes the selection of variants during the bainite transformation in the coarse grain heat-affected zone reduce, resulting in the reduction in large angle grain boundaries and the resistance to crack propagation, and finally the low temperature impact toughness presents a downward trend, and the fracture characteristics change from ductile fracture to cleavage fracture.
  • DU Hui-lei, WU Yu-kun, MA Si-han, CAO Zi-qi, LI Yi-peng, RAN Guang
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 133-139. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0593
    The corrosion behavior of Cr coated zirconium alloy prepared by electroplating technology and uncoated zirconium alloy was studied in an ultra-pure water solution at 360℃ and 18.5 MPa and high temperature water vapor environment at 1000℃ and 1200℃. The results show that under the above corrosion conditions, Cr coating significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the zirconium alloy, and significantly reduces oxidation mass gain. Compared with uncoated zirconium alloy, the oxidation mass gain of Cr coated zirconium alloy decreases by an order of magnitude after corrosion in high temperature water vapor environment for 54 min, and decreases by 75% after corrosion in high temperature and high pressure water environment for 48 h. After corrosion, a long and thin flocculent structure is formed on the surface of Cr coated zirconium alloy. The closer the oxide layer is to the surface of the sample, the more loose the structure, the more numerous and larger the size of the cavities. At the interface between the Cr coating and the oxide layer, the structure is dense and there are no obvious size cavities.
  • WANG Dong-wei, ZHAN Dong-ping, QIU Guo-xing, MA Jing-xiang, JIANG Zhou-hua, ZHANG Hui-shu
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2020, 41(3): 124-130. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2019-0419
    CLM steel produced by vacuum induction melting (VIM) and electroslag remelting (ESR) was used as the research object. After quenching at 1000℃, it was tempered at 690,725,760 and 795℃, respectively. The effect of tempering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of the CLAM steel was studied by means of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results show that after tempering at different temperatures, the microstructure of the tested steel is tempered martensite. With the increase of the tempering temperature, the number of precipitated phases in the tested steel increases gradually; after tempering at 725℃, the size of the precipitated phase of the tested steel is fine but the segregation phenomenon occurs, and when the tempering temperature is 760℃, the distribution of the precipitation phase is more uniform. With the increase of the tempering temperature, the strength of the tested steel decreases gradually, the impact toughness increases gradually, and the comprehensive mechanical properties of the tested steel are the best after tempering at 760℃. The effect of tempering at 725℃ on the dislocation density and strength of the tested steel is the most, and compared with the tempering at 690℃, the dislocation density, tensile strength and yield strength of the tested steel decrease by 2.575×1014 m-2, 109.6 MPa and 118.1 MPa, respectively.
  • LIU Xia-lin, AN Shi-zhong, WANG Bo, REN Feng-zhang
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(9): 1-14. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0089
    Magnesium-air batteries have attracted much attention in green and clean energy due to their advantages such as low cost, high energy density and high electrochemical equivalence. The research and development of magnesium-air batteries are still greatly hindered, mainly due to the problems of low battery discharge voltage, low anode utilization efficiency and high self corrosion rate in the application process of magnesium alloys. The reasons for these problems lie in the negative difference effect, passivation of discharge products and uneven microstructure of magnesium alloys themselves. Focusing on the anode materials of magnesium-air batteries, the anodic reaction mechanism and existing problems of magnesium alloys are summarized, and then the improvement methods for the electrochemical performance of magnesium alloys are reviewed from three aspects:alloying, processing technology and heat treatment process. Finally, the future development direction of magnesium-air battery anode materials is prospected.
  • ZHAO Guang-wei, ZOU Hai-feng, FANG Dong, HUANG Cai-hua, YE Xi-cong, DAI Lei
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(8): 76-86. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0086
    High entropy shape memory alloys of(Ti40-xHf10Tax)50(NiCu)50(x=0, 1, 5 and 10, at%) were prepared by vacuum arc melting. The effects of Ta content and loading conditions on microstructure, mechanical properties, superelasticity and stability of the alloys were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and room temperature cyclic compression. The results show that the as cast(Ti40-xHf10Tax)50(NiCu)50 high entropy memory alloys have excellent mechanical properties and superelasticity, and have higher output work compared to existing 2-4 element Ti-based memory alloys. When the pre strain is 15%, the applied stress of the Ta0, Ta1, and Ta5 alloys is 1390.8, 1591.2, and 2101.7 MPa, and the output work is 100.2, 124.3, and 197.4 J/cm3. With the increase of Ta content, the fracture strength and elongation of the alloys decrease, but the yield strength and recoverable strain of the Ta1 and Ta5 alloys increase, with the maximum recoverable strain of 7.8% and 9.4% respectively and the superelastic strain of 4.0% and 4.4% respectively. After heating, the total recoverable strain of the Ta1 and Ta5 alloys reaches 10.1% and 10.6%, respectively. In the cyclic compression process with increasing strain, the recoverable strain and superelastic strain of the alloys gradually increase with the increase of strain, and the growth rate decreases in the later period of the cycle. However, in the cyclic compression process with fixed strain, after 5-6 cycles, the recovery rate of the alloys can reach 100%, and the superelasticity, stress hysteresis and output work tend to be stable.
  • ZHANG Bao-feng, LU Xi-qun, SHI Yu-feng, WANG Xue-fei, FU Yu-dong
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2020, 41(4): 125-134. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2019-0448
    In order to study the effect of graphite morphology on wear process of cylinder liner cast iron, three cast iron materials with different graphite morphology, gray cast iron, vermicular graphite cast iron and ductile cast iron, were selected as the research objects, and the dry friction and wear experiments of the three cast iron materials were carried out at different temperatures. The results show that with the increase of the temperature, the friction coefficient and the wear mass loss of the gray cast iron increase, while the friction coefficient and the wear mass loss of the vermicular cast iron and the ductile cast iron increase first and then decrease. The friction coefficient and the wear mass loss of the gray cast iron at room temperature are the largest and the wear resistance is the worst; the friction coefficient and wear mass loss of the gray cast iron at high temperature are still the largest, and the friction coefficient of the vermicular cast iron is larger than that of the ductile cast iron, but the wear mass loss is the smallest and the wear resistance is the best.
  • WANG Lin, WANG Xiao-hui, LIU Zhen-bao, LIU Jian-heng, WANG Ben-chi, ZHOU Xiao-long
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(9): 178-187. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0534
    In order to obtain the hot processing map of 00Cr12Ni11Mo1Ti2 high-strength stainless steel and optimize its hot working process parameters, a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulation testing machine was used to conduct hot compression tests on the experimental steel at deformation temperature of 850-1150℃ and strain rate of 0.01-10 s-1, and its hot deformation behavior was studied. The constitutive equation of the experimental steel under peak flow stress was constructed, and the energy dissipation diagram was constructed based on the dynamic material model. The plastic instability diagram of the experimental steel was constructed using Prasad and Murthy instability criteria, respectively. The results show that the 00Cr12Ni11Mo1Ti2 steel can also undergo dynamic recrystallization in the deformation range where the energy dissipation rate is lower than 0.3. In the range where the strain rate is 1.0 to 10 s-1 and the deformation temperature is 850 to 1000℃, the experimental steel only undergoes partial dynamic recrystallization accompanied by a large number of local deformation bands, which is more consistent with the plastic instability zone predicted by the Murthy criterion. The experimental steel has the best hot workability in the range of deformation temperature of 1050-1150℃ and strain rate of 0.01-10.0 s-1, and can obtain fine and uniform primary austenite grain structure.
  • ZHEN Fan, LIU Jing, HUANG Feng, SHAO Chun-juan, QU Jin-bo, LI Xiao-bing
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(1): 22-30. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2022-0289
    316L/Q420 stainless steel clad plate samples were prepared by Gleeble-3800 thermal simulation machine, and effect of deformation rate on interface microstructure and bonding properties of the 316L/Q420 stainless steel clad plate was studied by means of tensile test, microhardness tester, optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and electron probe microanalysis. The results show that the microstructure of the 316L stainless steel is austenite, the microstructure of Q420 matrix is bainite(B)+a small amount of acicular ferrite(AF), and the decarburized layer(DL) is bainite(B)+polygonal ferrite(PF)+a small amount of acicular ferrite(AF). The interface area is composed of carburized layer(CL), transition layer(TL) and decarburized layer(DL). The hardness distribution of each layer is transition layer>carburized layer>decarburized layer. There are voids and SiMn oxides on the original interface(OI). With the increase of deformation rate, the morphology of interface voids and oxides changes from discontinuous linear particles to spherical particles, and the proportion decreases from 36% to 4%. The thickness of carburized layer, transition layer and decarburized layer gradually decreases, the grains are refined, and the hardness peak value of transition layer increases.The tensile strength of the clad plate increases first, then tends to be stable, and the elongation increases. The element diffusion behavior exists at the interface of the clad plate, and with the increase of deformation rate, the thickness of the diffusion layer of Cr, Ni and C elements decreases gradually.
  • TIAN Gao-long, XU Liu-jie, LI Zhou, ZHANG Lian-jie
    Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment. 2023, 44(9): 15-32. https://doi.org/10.13289/j.issn.1009-6264.2023-0078
    TZM alloy has the characteristics of high melting point, high strength, low linear expansion coefficient, good corrosion resistance, and good high-temperature mechanical properties.It is one of the most widely used molybdenum alloys and plays an irreplaceable role in many fields.Based on the research status of TZM alloy and on the basis of molybdenum alloy hot working forming and strengthening theory, the preparation methods, mechanical properties control methods, microstructure control methods and the latest research progress of TZM alloy are reviewed in this paper.The control strategies, such as changing doping and sintering processes, and alloy elements and second phases control, are introduced.In addition, the relationship between these interfaces and the properties of TZM alloy is also discussed.Finally, the future research direction and development of TZM alloy are prospected based on the strengthening and toughening mechanism.