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机械工程学报  2021, Vol. 57 Issue (12): 118-125    DOI: 10.3901/JME.2021.12.118
  仪器科学与仪器 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
金属材料表面残余应力超声测量方法
刘海波, 刘天然, 李亚鹏, 王永青
大连理工大学精密与特种加工教育部重点试验室 大连 116024
Surface Residual Stress Measurement of Metal Material Using Ultrasonic
LIU Haibo, LIU Tianran, LI Yapeng, WANG Yongqing
LIU Haibo LIU Tianran LI Yapeng WANG Yongqing
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摘要 针对金属材料零件制造中的表面残余应力无损检测难题,提出一种平面应力状态超声测量方法。基于线弹性理论,引入晶粒取向表征因子,揭示晶粒取向对超声传播的影响机制。虑及材料力学性质(弹性常数、晶粒取向等)和应力状态对声速的共同影响,建立平面应力分量-声速解耦模型。基于临界折射纵波(LCR波)表面应力测量原理,分析温度与耦合状态对超声信号衰减、畸变以及声时的影响规律,并设计出一种一发双收直接耦合造波探头。以单向拉伸的变截面铝合金板和搅拌摩擦焊后的轧制铝合金板为典型对象,利用自主开发的超声应力测量系统进行表面应力测量试验,分别与有限元法和小孔法进行对比,应力测量结果具有良好的一致性,可为金属材料表面残余应力测量提供可行方案。
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刘海波
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关键词 金属材料表面应力超声测量晶粒取向    
Abstract:To measure the surface residual stress using non-destructive testing method for the metal parts during manufacturing process is still a difficult problem. A plane stress state measurement method using ultrasonic is proposed. The characterization factor of grain orientation is introduced based on linear elasticity theory. And the influence mechanism of grain orientation on ultrasonic propagation is revealed. Considering the joint effect of material mechanical properties (elastic constants, grain orientation, etc.) and stress state on acoustic velocity, a plane stress component-acoustic velocity decoupling model is established. The effect of temperature and coupling state on ultrasonic attenuation, distortion and time-of-flight is analyzed based on longitudinal critically refracted (LCR) wave surface stress measurement principle, and a "one-transmitter-two-receiver" direct coupling wave-generation probe is designed. The variable cross-section aluminum alloy plate under uniaxial tension and the rolled aluminum alloy plate after friction stir welding are taken as typical objects. The surface stress measurement experiment is carried out by using the self-developed ultrasonic stress measurement system. The results of stress measurement are in good agreement compared with finite element method and hole drilling method, which provides a feasible solution for surface stress measurement of metal materials at the manufacturing site.
Key wordsmetal materials    surface stress    ultrasonic measurement    grain orientation
收稿日期: 2020-07-20      出版日期: 2021-08-31
ZTFLH:  TH821  
基金资助:国家重点研发计划(2018YFA0704603)和国家科技重大专项课题(2019ZX04022001)资助项目
通讯作者: 王永青(通信作者),男,1969年出生,博士,教育部长江学者特聘教授。主要研究方向为测量-加工一体化制造理论与技术、超声测量理论与技术、超低温冷却加工理论与技术、智能机电装备与系统等。E-mail:yqwang@dlut.edu.cn   
作者简介: 刘海波,男,1983年出生,博士,教授。主要研究方向为测量-加工一体化、超声测量等。E-mail:hbliu@dlut.edu.cn
引用本文:   
刘海波, 刘天然, 李亚鹏, 王永青. 金属材料表面残余应力超声测量方法[J]. 机械工程学报, 2021, 57(12): 118-125.
LIU Haibo, LIU Tianran, LI Yapeng, WANG Yongqing. Surface Residual Stress Measurement of Metal Material Using Ultrasonic. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2021, 57(12): 118-125.
链接本文:  
http://qikan.cmes.org/jxgcxb/CN/10.3901/JME.2021.12.118      或      http://qikan.cmes.org/jxgcxb/CN/Y2021/V57/I12/118
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