The ultraviolet aging and low velocity impact experiments were conducted on glass fiber reinforced epoxy vinyl ester resin composite. The effect of ultraviolet aging time (0, 20, 30, 40 d) and impact energy (12.5, 25.0 J) on the surface morphology, element distribution, chemical structure and mechanical properties of the composite was studied. The results show that with the increase of ultraviolet aging time, the color of the composite surface was gradually deepened, and the fiber and the resin matrix were debonded. After aging for 40 d, the surface element content and the chemical structure of resin changed, and photo-oxidation degradation of the resin matrix occurred. When the impact energy was constant, the maximum load, tensile strength and bending strength of the composite all decreased with the increase of ultraviolet aging time. After aging for 40 d, the maximum load of the composites decreased by 5.2% and 19.5% when the impact energy was 12.5 J and 25.0 J, respectively.