摘要As the bridge between basic principles and applications of nanotechnology, nanofabrication methods play significant role in supporting the development of nanoscale science and engineering, which is changing and improving the production and lifestyle of the human. Photo lithography and other alternative technologies, such as nanoimprinting, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam cutting, and scanning probe lithography, have brought great progress of semiconductor industry, IC manufacturing and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices. However, there remains a lot of challenges, relating to the resolution, cost, speed, and so on, in realizing high-quality products with further development of nanotechnology. None of the existing techniques can satisfy all the needs in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the same time, and it is essential to explore new nanofabrication methods. As a newly developed scanning probe microscope (SPM)-based lithography, friction-induced nanofabrication provides opportunities for maskless, flexible, low-damage, low-cost and environment-friendly processing on a wide variety of materials, including silicon, quartz, glass surfaces, and so on. It has been proved that this fabrication route provides with a broad application prospect in the fabrication of nanoimprint templates, microfluidic devices, and micro/nano optical structures. This paper hereby involved the principals and operations of friction-induced nanofabrication, including friction-induced selective etching, and the applications were reviewed as well for looking ahead at opportunities and challenges with nanotechnology development. The present review will not only enrich the knowledge in nanotribology, but also plays a positive role in promoting SPM-based nanofabrication.
Abstract：As the bridge between basic principles and applications of nanotechnology, nanofabrication methods play significant role in supporting the development of nanoscale science and engineering, which is changing and improving the production and lifestyle of the human. Photo lithography and other alternative technologies, such as nanoimprinting, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam cutting, and scanning probe lithography, have brought great progress of semiconductor industry, IC manufacturing and micro/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) devices. However, there remains a lot of challenges, relating to the resolution, cost, speed, and so on, in realizing high-quality products with further development of nanotechnology. None of the existing techniques can satisfy all the needs in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the same time, and it is essential to explore new nanofabrication methods. As a newly developed scanning probe microscope (SPM)-based lithography, friction-induced nanofabrication provides opportunities for maskless, flexible, low-damage, low-cost and environment-friendly processing on a wide variety of materials, including silicon, quartz, glass surfaces, and so on. It has been proved that this fabrication route provides with a broad application prospect in the fabrication of nanoimprint templates, microfluidic devices, and micro/nano optical structures. This paper hereby involved the principals and operations of friction-induced nanofabrication, including friction-induced selective etching, and the applications were reviewed as well for looking ahead at opportunities and challenges with nanotechnology development. The present review will not only enrich the knowledge in nanotribology, but also plays a positive role in promoting SPM-based nanofabrication.
 A Pimpin, W Srituravanich. Review on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications. Engineering Journal, 2012, 16(1): 37-56.  H Phan, T Nguyen, T Dinh, et al. Robust free-standing nano-thin sic membranes enable direct photolithography for MEMS sensing applications. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2018, 20(1): 1700858.  D Qin, Y Xia, G M Whitesides. Soft lithography for micro- and nanoscale patterning. Nature Protocols, 2010, 5: 491-502.  S Y Chou, C Keimel, J Gu. Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon. Nature, 2002, 417(6891): 835-837.  J Deng, J Yan, J Shao, et al. Electron beam lithography on uneven resist for uniform Bragg gratings in Ga-Sb based distributed-feedback laser. Microelectronic Engineering, 2018, 195: 32-35.  L D Menard, J M Ramsey. Fabrication of sub-5 nm nanochannels in insulating substrates using focused ion beam milling. Nano Letters, 2011, 11: 512-517.  Y Xu, N Matsumoto. Flexible and in situ fabrication of nanochannels with high aspect ratios and nanopillar arrays in fused silica substrates utilizing focused ion beam. RSC Advances, 2015, 5: 50638-50643.  Y K Ryu Cho, C D Rawlings, H Wolf, et al. Sub-10 nanometer feature size in silicon using thermal scanning probe lithography. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(26): 11890-11897.  S Chen, S Kim, W Chen, et al. Monolayer MoS2 nanoribbon transistors fabricated by scanning probe lithography. Nano Letters, 2019, 19(3): 2092-2098.  Y Wang, X Hong, J Zeng, et al. AFM tip hammering nanolithography. Small, 2009, 5(4): 477-483.  G Binnig, H Rohrer, Ch Gerber, et al. Surface studies by scanning tunneling microscopy. Physical Review Letters, 1982, 49(1): 31-35.  A A Tseng. Tip-based nanofabrication: fundamentals and applications. Phoenix: Arizona State University, 2011.  A P Malshe, K P Rajurkar, K R Virwani, et al. Tip-based nanomanufacturing by electrical, chemical, mechanical and thermal processes. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 2010, 59(2): 628-651.  D M Eigler, E K Schweizer. Positioning single atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope. Nature, 1990, 344(6266): 524-526.  F J Giessibl, C F Quate. Exploring the nanoworld with atomic force microscopy. Physics Today, 2006, 59(12): 44-50.  Y Sugimoto, M Abe, S Hirayama, et al. Atom inlays performed at room temperature using atomic force microscopy. Nature Materials, 2005, 4(2): 156-159.  O Custance, R Perez, S Morita. Atomic force microscopy as a tool for atom manipulation. Nature Nanotechnology, 2009, 4(12): 803-810.  H C Manoharan, C P Lutz, D M Eigler. Quantum mirages formed by coherent projection of electronic structure. Nature, 2000, 403(6769): 512-515.  D Stiévenard, B Legrand. Silicon surface nano-oxidation using scanning probe microscopy. Progress in Surface Science, 2006, 81(2): 112-140.  G Guo, J Li, C Deng, et al. Nondestructive nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon via site-controlled formation and removal of oxide mask. Applied Physics Express, 2018, 11(11): 116501.  Y Li, B W Maynor, J Liu. Electrochemical AFM "Dip-Pen" nanolithography. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2001, 123(9): 2105-2106  R D Piner, J Zhu, F Xu, et al. "Dip-Pen" nanolithography. Science, 1999, 283(5402): 661-663.  D Pires, J L Hedrick, A D Silva, et al. Nanoscale three-dimensional patterning of molecular resists by scanning probes. Science, 2010, 328(5979): 732-735.  B Yu, H Dong, L Qian, et al. Friction-induced nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon. Nanotechnology, 2009, 20(46): 465303.  B Yu, L Qian, H Dong, et al. Friction-induced hillocks on monocrystalline silicon in atmosphere and in vacuum. Wear, 2010, 268(9): 1095-1102.  B Yu, X Li, H Dong, et al. Towards a deeper understanding of the formation of friction-induced hillocks on monocrystalline silicon. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2012, 45(14): 145301.  J Guo, C Song, X Li, et al. Fabrication mechanism of friction-induced selective etching on Si (100) surface. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2012, 7(1): 152.  Y D Yan, Z J Hu, X S Zhao, et al. Top-down nanomechanical machining of three-dimensional nanostructures by atomic force microscopy. Small, 2010, 6(6): 724-728.  J Deng, J Y Dong, Paul Cohen. High rate 3D nanofabrication by AFM-based ultrasonic vibration assisted nanomachining. Procedia Manufacturing, 2016, 5: 1283-1294.  U Kunze. Nanoscale devices fabricated by dynamic ploughing with an atomic force microscope. Superlattices and Microstructures, 2002, 31(1): 3-17.  Y He, Y D Yan, Y Q Geng, et al. Fabrication of periodic nanostructures using dynamic plowing lithography with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Applied Surface Science, 2018, 427: 1076-1083.  B Vasic, M Kratzer, A Matkovic, et al. Atomic force microscopy based manipulation of graphene using dynamic plowing lithography. Nanotechnology, 2013, 24: 015303.  R Kaneko, T Miyamoto, Y Andoh, et al. Microwear. Thin Solid Films, 1996, 273(1): 105-111.  E Hamada, R Kaneko. Micro-distortion of polymer surfaces by friction. Journal of Physical D: Applied Physics, 1992, 25: A53.  R Kaneko, E Hamada. Microwear processes of polymer surfaces. Wear, 1993, 162-164: 370-377.  J Yu, L Qian, B Yu, et al. Nanofretting behaviors of monocrystalline silicon (100) against diamond tips in atmosphere and vacuum. Wear, 2009, 267(1): 322-329.  T Fang, C Weng, J Chang. Machining characterization of the nano-lithography process using atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology, 2000, 11(3): 181-187.  Y Q Wu, H Huang, J Zou, et al. Nanoscratch-induced phase transformation of monocrystalline Si. Scripta Materialia, 2010, 63(8): 847-850.  K L Johnson. Contact mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.  L Qian, M Li, Z Zhou, et al. Comparison of nano-indentation hardness and micro hardness. Surface & Coatings Technology, 2005, 195(2): 264-271.  F Ebrahimi, L Kalwani. Fracture anisotropy in silicon single crystal. Materials Science and Engineering A-structural Materials Properties Microstructure and Processing, 1999, 268(1): 116-126.  B Bhushan. Nano to microscale wear and mechanical characterization using scanning probe microscopy. Wear, 2001, 251(1): 1105-1123.  B Yu, L Qian. Effect of crystal plane orientation on the friction-induced nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2013, 8(1): 137.  P J Hesketh, C Ju, S Gowda, et al. Surface free energy model of silicon anisotropic etching. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1993, 140(4): 1080-1085.  P Stempflé, J Takadoum. Multi-asperity nanotribological behavior of single-crystal silicon: crystallography-induced anisotropy in friction and wear. Tribology International, 2012, 48: 35-43.  M C Elwenspoek. On the mechanism of anisotropic etching of silicon. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1993, 140(7): 2075-2080.  B Yu. Study on the formation, mechanism and application of friction-induced hillock on monocrystalline silicon. Chengdu: Southwest Jiaotong University, 2012. (in Chinese)  B Yu, X Li, H Dong, et al. Mechanical performance of friction-induced protrusive nanostructures on monocrystalline silicon and quartz. Micro & Nano Letters, 2012, 7(12): 1270-1273.  N Satyanarayana, S K Sinha. Tribology of PFPE overcoated self-assembled monolayers deposited on Si surface. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2005, 38: 3512-3522.  R Kaneko, S Umemura, M Hirana, et al. Recent progress in microtribology. Wear, 1996, 200(1): 296-304.  S Miyake, J Kim. Fabrication of silicon utilizing mechanochemical local oxidation by diamond tip sliding. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2001, 40(11): 1247-1249.  S Miyake, J Kim. Nanoprocessing of silicon by mechanochemical reaction using atomic force microscopy and additional potassium hydroxide solution etching. Nanotechnology, 2005, 16(1): 149-157.  N Kawasegi, N Morita, S Yamada, et al. Etch stop of silicon surface induced by tribo-nanolithography. Nanotechnology, 2005, 16(8): 1411-1414.  K Chung, Y Lee, D Kim. Characteristics of fracture during the approach process and wear mechanism of silicon AFM tip. Ultramicroscopy, 2005, 102(2): 161-171.  S Miyake, M Wang, J Kim. Silicon nanofabrication by atomic force microscopy-based mechanical processing. Journal of Nanotechnology, 2014: 1-19.  S W Youn, C G Kang. Effect of nanoscratch conditions on both deformation behavior and wet-etching characeristics of silicon (100) surface. Wear, 2006, 261(3): 328-337.  I Zarudi, W C D Cheong, J Zou, et al. Atomistic structure of monocrystalline silicon in surface nano-modification. Nanotechnology, 2004, 15(1): 104-107.  A Rota, E Serpini, G C Gazzadi, et al. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 2016, 28(13): 134008.  J W Park, S S Lee, B S So, et al. Characteristics of mask layer on (100) silicon induced by tribo-nanolithography with diamond tip cantilevers based on AFM. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2007, 187: 321-325.  I Sung, D Kim. Nano-scale patterning by mechano-chemical scanning probe lithography. Applied Surface Science, 2005, 239: 209-221.  J W Park, N Kawasegi, N Morita. Tribonanolithography of silicon in aqueous solution based on atomic force microscopy. Applied Physics Letters, 2004, 85: 1766-1768.  N Kawasegi, N Morita. High-aspect-ratio structure fabrication on (110)-oriented silicon surfaces using tribo-nanolithography. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2010, 10: 2394-2400.  J W Park, N Kawasegi, N Morita, et al. Mechanical approach to nanomachining of silicon using oxide characteristics based on tribo nanolithography (TNL) in KOH solution. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 2004, 126(4): 801-806.  Y Q Wu, H Huang, J Zou, et al. Nanoscratch-induced deformation of single crystal silicon. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena, 2009, 27(3): 1374-1377.  H Seidel, L Csepregi, A Heuberger, et al. Anisotropic etching of crystalline silicon in alkaline solutions. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1990, 137(11): 3612-3626.  DK Biegelsen, M Stutzmann. Hyperfine studies of dangling bonds in amorphous silicon. Physical Review B, 1986, 33(5): 3006-3011.  C Zhou, J Li, L Wu, et al. Friction-induced selective etching on silicon by TMAH solution. RSC advances, 2018, 8(63): 36043-36048.  C Y Chen, C P Wong. Unveiling the shape-diversified silicon nanowires made by HF/HNO3, isotropic etching with the assistance of silver. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(3): 1216-1223.  H Wang, C Deng, C Xiao, et al. Fast and maskless nanofabrication for high-quality nanochannel. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2019, 288: 383-391.  L Wu, B Yu, P Zhang, et al. Rapid identification of ultrathin amorphous damage on monocrystalline silicon surface. PhysicalChemistry Chemical Physics, 2020, 22: 12987-12995.  C Jin, B Yu, C Xiao, et al. Temperature-dependent nanofabrication on silicon by friction-induced selective etching. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2016, 11(1): 229.  C Jin, B Yu, X Liu, et al. Site-controlled fabrication of silicon nanotips by indentation-induced selective etching. Applied Surface Science, 2017, 425: 227-232.  L Wu, B Yu, Z Fan, et al. Effects of normal load and etching time on current evolution of scratched GaAs surface during selective etching. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2020, 105: 104744.  J Guo, C Xiao, B Peng, et al. Tribochemistry-induced direct fabrication of nondestructive nanochannels on silicon surface. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(122): 100769-100774.  J Guo, B Yu, L Chen, et al. Nondestructive nanofabrication on Si (100) surface by tribochemistry-induced selective etching. Scientific Reports, 2015, 5: 16472.  H Wang, B Yu, S Jiang, et al. UV/ozone-assisted tribochemistry-induced nanofabrication on Si (100) surfaces. RSC Advances, 2017, 7(63): 39651-39656.  E Yilgor, O Kaymakci, M Isik, et al. Effect of UV/ozone irradiation on the surface properties of electrospun webs and films prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymers. Applied Surface Science, 2012, 258(10): 4246-4253.  X Liu, B Yu, Y Zou, et al. Revealing silicon crystal defects by conductive atomic force microscope. Applied Physics Letters, 2018, 113: 101601.  J Guo, B Yu, X Wang, et al. Nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon through friction-induced selective etching of Si3N4 mask. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2014, 9(1): 241.  C Song, X Li, S Cui, et al. Maskless and low-destructive nanofabrication on quartz by friction-induced selective etching. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2013, 8(1): 140.  C Song, B Yu, L Qian. Effect of scan parameters and etching temperature on low-destructive nanofabrication of quartz. Micro & Nano Letters, 2013, 8(10): 735-739.  P Tang, B Yu, J Guo, et al. Maskless micro/nanofabrication on GaAs surface by friction-induced selective etching. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2014, 9(1): 59.  P S Pizani, F Lanciotti, R G Jasinevicius, et al. Raman characterization of structural disorder and residual strains in micromachined GaAs. Journal of Applied Physics, 2000, 87(3): 1280.  C Song, B Yu, M Wang, et al. Rapid and maskless nanopatterning of aluminosilicate glass surface via friction-induced selective etching in HF solution. RSC Advances, 2015, 5(97): 79964-79968.  Y F Niu, K Han, J P Guin. Locally enhanced dissolution rate as a probe for nanocontact-induced densification in oxide glasses. Langmuir, 2012, 28(29): 10733-10740.  C Iliescu, F E H Tay, J Miao. Strategies in deep wet etching of Pyrex glass. Sensors & Actuators A Physical, 2007, 133(2): 395-400.  L Wu, Z Fan, Y Peng, et al. Rapid nanofabrication via UV-assisted selective etching on GaAs without templates. Chemical Physics Letters, 2019, 717: 152-157.  J V D Ven, H J P Nabben. Analysis of determining factors in the kinetics of anisotropic photoetching of GaAs. Journal of Applied Physics, 1990, 67: 7572-7575.  Y Peng, S Jiang, Y Tan, et al. The formation mechanism of nondefective silicon micropatterns fabricated by scratching assisted electrochemical Etching. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2019, 8(9): 464-471.  V Lehmann, S Ronnebeck. The physics of macropore formation in low-doped p-type silicon. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1999, 146(8): 2968-2975.  V Lehmann, H Foll. Formation mechanism and properties of electrochemically etched trenches in n-type silicon. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 1990, 137(2): 653-659.  Q Tang, H Shen, H Yao, et al. Formation mechanism of inverted pyramid from sub-micro to micro scale on c-Si surface by metal assisted chemical etching temperature. Applied Surface Science, 2018, 455: 283-294.  L Wu, P Zhang, C Feng, et al. Scanning probe-based nanolithography: nondestructive structures fabricated on silicon surface via distinctive anisotropic etching in HF/HNO3 mixtures. Journal of Materials Science, 2021, 56: 3887-3899.  Z Wu, C Song, J Guo, et al. A multi-probe micro-fabrication apparatus based on the friction-induced fabrication method. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering, 2013, 8(4): 333-339.  J Chen, J Liu, B Yu, et al. Preparation of multi-tip arrays on flexible substrates for large-scale microfabrication. Micro & Nano Letters, 2017, 12(2): 104-108.  H Wang, B Yu, S Jiang, et al. Simple and low-cost nanofabrication process of nanoimprint templates for high-quality master gratings: Friction-induced selective etching. Applied Surface Science, 2018, 454: 23-29.  Y Peng, S Jiang, L Xia, et al. Direct ink writing combined with metal-assisted chemical etching of microchannels for the microfluidic system applications. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2020, 315: 112320.  R B Schoch, J Han, P Renaud. Transport phenomena in nanofluidics. Reviews of Modern Physics, 2008, 80(3): 839-883.  C Chang, A Sakdinawat. Ultra-high aspect ratio high-resolution nanofabrication for hard X-ray diffractive optics. Nature Communications, 2014, 5(1): 1-7.