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Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
ISSN 1000-9345
CN 11-2737/TH
   Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
  2020年, 第33卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2020-12-16 上一期   
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A Review on Self-Recovery Regulation (SR) Technique for Unbalance Vibration of High-End Equipment
Xin Pan, Jiaqiao Lu, Jiaji Huo, Jinji Gao, Haiqi Wu
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  89-89.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00514-7
摘要 ( 26 )   下载 PDF (4735KB) 收藏
The high-end equipment represented by high-end machine tools and aero-engines is the core component of the national intelligent manufacturing plan, and the mass unbalance is the main reason for its excessive vibration, that seriously impacts the operation efficiency and running life of the equipment. In order to change the traditional way that the fault of equipment can only be repaired by human, the self-recovery mechanism of human and animal are given to the equipment in this paper, which forms the self-recovery regulation (SR) system for unbalance vibration of high-end equipment. The system can online generate the self-recovery force to restrain the unbalance vibration of the equipment in operation, which is an important direction for the development of the equipment to the advanced intelligent stage. Based on the basic principles of SR technique, the typical engineering application cases of this technique in the field of aeroengine and high-end machine tools are introduced, and four related studies promoting the development of this technique are summarized and analyzed in turn. It includes feature extraction, imbalance location, regulation method and balancing actuator. Self-recovery Regulation (SR) Technique is an important way to realize intelligent manufacturing and intelligent maintenance. Relevant research can lay a technical foundation for the development of high-end equipment with self-health function.
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A Comprehensive Review of Isogeometric Topology Optimization: Methods, Applications and Prospects
Jie Gao, Mi Xiao, Yan Zhang, Liang Gao
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  87-87.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00503-w
摘要 ( 27 )   下载 PDF (2638KB) 收藏
Topology Optimization (TO) is a powerful numerical technique to determine the optimal material layout in a design domain, which has accepted considerable developments in recent years. The classic Finite Element Method (FEM) is applied to compute the unknown structural responses in TO. However, several numerical deficiencies of the FEM significantly influence the effectiveness and efficiency of TO. In order to eliminate the negative influence of the FEM on TO, IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) has become a promising alternative due to its unique feature that the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) model can be unified into a same mathematical model. In the paper, the main intention is to provide a comprehensive overview for the developments of Isogeometric Topology Optimization (ITO) in methods and applications. Finally, some prospects for the developments of ITO in the future are also presented.
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Intelligent Manufacturing Technology
Sensitivity of Influential Factors on Needle Insertion Experiments: A Quantitative Analysis on Phantom Deformations and Needle Deflections
Murong Li, Yong Lei, Tian Xu
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  97-97.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00515-6
摘要 ( 14 )   下载 PDF (2356KB) 收藏
High repeatability of needle insertion experiments is essential to the needle-phantom interaction model validation. However, the influential factors governing the accuracy of the phantom and needle deformations have not been systematically studied. In this paper, the impact of influential factors, including phantom characteristic represented by the ratio of DMSO and thawing time (TT), needle properties represented by needle external diameter (NED) and operating factors such as needle insertion velocity (Ⅳ), insertion positions (IP) and repeated insertion times (RITs) are analyzed by orthogonal experiment design. The range calculation shows the most sensitive parameters to phantom deformations are RITs, Ⅳ and DMSO while the most sensitive parameters to needle deflection are DMSO, TT and NED. By variance analysis, the significant factors on maximum tissue deformation (MTD) are Ⅳ, followed by RITs, DMSO and IP. And NED and TT have nearly no significant impact on MTD. The significant sequence on maximum needle deflection (MND) is as follows: DMSO, TT and NED. Results show that, among all impacting factors, phantom deformation is susceptible to both material properties and operative factors while the needle deflection is more susceptible to material properties of the phantom, which can help researchers in related fields to conduct experiments in a more precise manner and better understand the needle-phantom interaction mechanism.
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Triple-Helix Structured Model Based on Problem-Knowledge-Solution Co-evolution for Innovative Product Design Process
Qian Hui, Yan Li, Ye Tao, Hongwei Liu
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  94-94.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00519-2
摘要 ( 8 )   下载 PDF (2183KB) 收藏
A design problem with deficient information is generally described as wicked or ill-defined. The information insufficiency leaves designers with loose settings, free environments, and a lack of strict boundaries, which provides them with more opportunities to facilitate innovation. Therefore, to capture the opportunity behind the uncertainty of a design problem, this study models an innovative design as a composite solving process, where the problem is clarified and resolved from fuzziness to satisfying solutions by interplay among design problems, knowledge, and solutions. Additionally, a triple-helix structured model for the innovative product design process is proposed based on the co-evolution of the problem, solution, and knowledge spaces, to provide designers with a distinct design strategy and method for innovative design. The three spaces interact and co-evolve through iterative mappings, including problem structuring, knowledge expansion, and solution generation. The mappings carry the information processing and decision-making activities of the design, and create the path to satisfying solutions. Finally, a case study of a reactor coolant flow distribution device is presented to demonstrate the practicability of this model and the method for innovative product design.
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Flow Control for a Two-Stage Proportional Valve with Hydraulic Position Feedback
He Wang, Xiaohu Wang, Jiahai Huang, Long Quan
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  93-93.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00517-4
摘要 ( 12 )   下载 PDF (2272KB) 收藏
The current research mainly focuses on the flow control for the two-stage proportional valve with hydraulic position feedback which is named as Valvistor valve. Essentially, the Valvistor valve is a proportional throttle valve and the flow fluctuates with the change of load pressure. The flow fluctuation severely restricts the application of the Valvistor valve. In this paper, a novel flow control method the Valvistor valve is provided to suppress the flow fluctuation and develop a high performance proportional flow valve. The mathematical model of this valve is established and linearized. Fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is adopted in the closed-loop flow control system. The feedback is obtained by the flow inference with back-propagation neural network (BPNN) based on the spool displacement in the pilot stage and the pressure differential across the main orifice. The results show that inference with BPNN can obtain the flow data fast and accurately. With the flow control method, the flow can keep at the set point when the pressure differential across the main orifice changes. The flow control method is effective and the Valvistor valve changes from proportional throttle valve to proportional flow valve. For the developed proportional flow valve, the settling time of the flow is very short when the load pressure changes abruptly. The performances of hysteresis, linearity and bandwidth are in a high range. The linear mathematical model can be verified and the assumptions in the system modeling is reasonable.
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A Robust and Efficient Compressed Sensing Algorithm for Wideband Acoustic Imaging
Fangli Ning, Zhe Liu, Jiahao Song, Feng Pan, Pengcheng Han, Juan Wei
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  95-95.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00504-9
摘要 ( 8 )   下载 PDF (3366KB) 收藏
Wideband acoustic imaging, which combines compressed sensing (CS) and microphone arrays, is widely used for locating acoustic sources. However, the location results of this method are unstable, and the computational efficiency is low. In this work, in order to improve the robustness and reduce the computational cost, a DCS-SOMP-SVD compressed sensing method, which combines the distributed compressed sensing using simultaneously orthogonal matching pursuit (DCS-SOMP) and singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. The performance of the DCS-SOMP-SVD is studied through both simulation and experiment. In the simulation, the locating results of the DCS-SOMP-SVD method are compared with the wideband BP method and the DCS-SOMP method. In terms of computational efficiency, the proposed method is as efficient as the DCS-SOMP method and more efficient than the wideband BP method. In terms of locating accuracy, the proposed method can still locate all sources when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is - 20 dB, while the wideband BP method and the DCS-SOMP method can only locate all sources when the SNR is higher than 0 dB. The performance of the proposed method can be improved by expanding the frequency range. Moreover, there is no extra source in the maps of the proposed method, even though the target sparsity is overestimated. Finally, a gas leak experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of the DCS-SOMP-SVD method in the practical engineering environment. The experimental results show that the proposed method can locate both two leak sources in different frequency ranges. This research proposes a DCS-SOMP-SVD method which has sufficient robustness and low computational cost for wideband acoustic imaging.
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A Sensitivity Mapping Technique for Tensile Force and Case Depth Characterization Based on Magnetic Minor Hysteresis Loops
Cunfu He, Wenqiao Dou, Xiucheng Liu, Meng Yang, Ruifang Zhang
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  84-84.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00508-5
摘要 ( 14 )   下载 PDF (2271KB) 收藏
In the nondestructive testing and evaluation area, magnetic major hysteresis loop measurement technology are widely applied for ferromagnetic material evaluation. However the characterization ability of major hysteresis loop measurement technology greatly varies as the evaluated target properties. To solve this limitation, magnetic minor hysteresis loops, which reflect the responses of ferromagnetic material magnetization in a systematic way, is recommend. Inspired by plenty of information carried by the minor loops, the sensitivity mapping technique was developed to achieve the highest sensitivity of minor-loop parameters to the nondestructively evaluated targets. In this study, for the first time, the sensitivity mapping technique is used to measure the tensile force in a steel strand and evaluate the effective case depth in induction-hardened steel rods. The method and procedures for the sensitivity mapping technique are given before experimental detection. The obtained experimental results indicate that the linear correlation between the induced voltage (or the magnetic induction intensity) and the tensile force (or effective case depth) exists at most of the locations in the cluster of minor loops. The obtained sensitivity maps can be used to optimize the applied magnetic field (or excitation current) and the analyzed locations at the minor loops for achieving the highest sensitivity. For the purpose of tensile force measurement, it is suggested that the strand should be firstly magnetized to the near-saturation state and then restored to the remanent state. In this way, the highest sensitivity is obtained as about 15.26 mV/kN. As for the induction-hardened steel rods, the highest sensitivity of magnetic induction intensity to the effective case depth occurs under low magnetic field conditions and the absolute value of the highest sensitivity is about 0.1110 T/mm. This indicates that if the highest sensitivity is required in the case depth evaluation, the induction-hardened steel rods are only required to be weakly magnetized. The proposed sensitivity mapping technique shows the good performance in the high-sensitivity evaluation of tensile force and case depth in ferromagnetic materials and its application scope can be extended to other nondestructive detection fields.
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Amending Research on the Expression of the Contact Force of the Spindle Barrel Finishing Based on EDEM Simulation
Na Wang, Shengqiang Yang, Tingting Zhao, Bo Cao, Chengwei Wang
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  83-83.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00502-x
摘要 ( 10 )   下载 PDF (3093KB) 收藏
The spindle barrel finishing is commonly used to improve the surface integrity of the important parts of the high-end equipment while it is difficult to provide enough test artifacts for the traditional trial and error experiment to obtain the desirable processing technology. The EDEM simulation of the spindle barrel finishing can provide effective help for the process design, however, the difference between the simulation and experiment is closely related to the selection of the contact model during simulation. In this paper, simulations and experiments are conducted based on the identical apparatus and conditions to facilitate the comparison and validation between each other. Based on the Hertz contact theory, the effect of the material properties of contact objects and the relative position of the workpiece on the contact force is qualified. The expression of the correlation coefficient of the contact model is deduced. Then the formula for calculating the contact force between the barrel finishing abrasive and the workpiece that includes influence coefficient of the material properties and the relative positions is established. Finally, the contact force calculation formula is verified by changing the rotating speed. The result shows that the material correction coefficient ranges from 1.41 to 2.38, which is inversely related to the equivalent modulus E. The position correction coefficient ranges from 2.0 to 2.3. The relative error value between the calculation result and the experimental test result is from 0.58% to 14.07%. This research lay a theoretical foundation for the correction theory of the core elements of the spindle barrel finishing process.
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Mechanism and Robotics
New Start-up Method for a Closed-Cycle Compression System with Gas Bearings and Its Characteristics
Huaqi Lian, Hong Wu, Yulong Li, Chengjun Rong
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  98-98.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00512-9
摘要 ( 7 )   下载 PDF (8878KB) 收藏
Gas bearings, which have the advantages of low frictional resistance and power loss, high rotational speed and high temperature operation, and long life, are more suitable than are traditional liquid lubricated bearings because of their high precision, high rotational speed, and special condition support. However, the problem of starting a closed-cycle compression system with gas bearings still needs to be solved for practical application. Thus, a new start-up method for a closed-cycle compression system with aerostatic gas bearings is proposed in this paper. Further, this paper presents a numerical simulation and experimental investigation of the methodos feasibility and characteristics during the start-up process when the gas tankos initial pressure is fixed. The results show that the gas tank volume is approximately directly proportional to the start-up time allowable, and a gas tank volume sufficiently small, which not only ensures the feasibility of start-up, but also affects other components only slightly, can be obtained. A perfect combination of radial and axial loads also can be achieved to make the start-up time allowable as long as possible. R134a is a better choice for the working medium than is air, as the start-up time allowable is longer, which leads to a smaller gas tank. This research proposes a new start-up method for a closed-cycle compression system with aerostatic gas bearings which has sufficient load capacity to support system during the start-up method.
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A New Method for Type Synthesis of 2R1T and 2T1R 3-DOF Redundant Actuated Parallel Mechanisms with Closed Loop Units
Yongquan Li, Yang Zhang, Lijie Zhang
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  78-78.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00487-7
摘要 ( 9 )   下载 PDF (6958KB) 收藏
The current type synthesis of the redundant actuated parallel mechanisms is adding active-actuated kinematic branches on the basis of the traditional parallel mechanisms, or using screw theory to perform multiple getting intersection and union to complete type synthesis. The number of redundant parallel mechanisms obtained by these two methods is limited. In this paper, based on Grassmann line geometry and Atlas method, a novel and effective method for type synthesis of redundant actuated parallel mechanisms (PMs) with closed-loop units is proposed. Firstly, the degree of freedom (DOF) and constraint line graph of the moving platform are determined successively, and redundant lines are added in constraint line graph to obtain the redundant constraint line graph and their equivalent line graph, and a branch constraint allocation scheme is formulated based on the allocation criteria. Secondly, a scheme is selected and redundant lines are added in the branch chains DOF graph to construct the redundant actuated branch chains with closed-loop units. Finally, the branch chains that meet the requirements of branch chains configuration criteria and F & C (degree of freedom & constraint) line graph are assembled. In this paper, two types of 2 rotational and 1 translational (2R1T) redundant actuated parallel mechanisms and one type of 2 translational and 1 rotational (2T1R) redundant actuated parallel mechanisms with few branches and closed-loop units were taken as examples, and 238, 92 and 15 new configurations were synthesized. All the mechanisms contain closed-loop units, and the mechanisms and the actuators both have good symmetry. Therefore, all the mechanisms have excellent comprehensive performance, in which the two rotational DOFs of the moving platform of 2R1T redundant actuated parallel mechanism can be independently controlled. The instantaneous analysis shows that all mechanisms are not instantaneous, which proves the feasibility and practicability of the method.
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A Hyper-redundant Elephant's Trunk Robot with an Open Structure: Design, Kinematics, Control and Prototype
Yongjie Zhao, Xiaogang Song, Xingwei Zhang, Xinjian Lu
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  96-96.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00509-4
摘要 ( 5 )   下载 PDF (5677KB) 收藏
As for the complex operational tasks in the unstructured environment with narrow workspace and numerous obstacles, the traditional robots cannot accomplish these mentioned complex operational tasks and meet the dexterity demands. The hyper-redundant bionic robots can complete complex tasks in the unstructured environments by simulating the motion characteristics of the elephant's trunk and octopus tentacles. Compared with traditional robots, the hyper-redundant bionic robots can accomplish complex tasks because of their flexible structure. A hyper-redundant elephant's trunk robot (HRETR) with an open structure is developed in this paper. The content includes mechanical structure design, kinematic analysis, virtual prototype simulation, control system design, and prototype building. This design is inspired by the flexible motion of an elephant's trunk, which is expansible and is composed of six unit modules, namely, 3UPS-PS parallel in series. First, the mechanical design of the HRETR is completed according to the motion characteristics of an elephant's trunk and based on the principle of mechanical bionic design. After that, the backbone mode method is used to establish the kinematic model of the robot. The simulation software SolidWorks and ADAMS are combined to analyze the kinematic characteristics when the trajectory of the end moving platform of the robot is assigned. With the help of ANSYS, the static stiffness of each component and the whole robot is analyzed. On this basis, the materials of the weak parts of the mechanical structure and the hardware are selected reasonably. Next, the extensible structures of software and hardware control system are constructed according to the modular and hierarchical design criteria. Finally, the prototype is built and its performance is tested. The proposed research provides a method for the design and development for the hyper-redundant bionic robot.
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New Hybrid AD Methodology for Minimizing the Total Amount of Information Content: A Case Study of Rehabilitation Robot Design
Tao Yang, Xueshan Gao, Fuquan Dai
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  86-86.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00511-w
摘要 ( 4 )   下载 PDF (5366KB) 收藏
Converting customer needs into specific forms and providing consumers with services are crucial in product design. Currently, conversion is no longer difficult due to the development of modern technology, and various measures can be applied for product realization, thus increasing the complexity of analysis and evaluation in the design process. The focus of the design process has thus shifted from problem solving to minimizing the total amount of information content. This paper presents a New Hybrid Axiomatic Design (AD) Methodology based on iteratively matching and merging design parameters that meet the independence axiom and attribute constraints by applying trimming technology, the ideal final results, and technology evolution theory. The proposed method minimizes the total amount of information content and improves the design quality. Finally, a case study of a rehabilitation robot design for hemiplegic patients is presented. The results indicate that the iterative matching and merging of related attributes can minimize the total amount of information content, reduce the cost, and improve design efficiency. Additionally, evolutionary technology prediction can ensure product novelty and improve market competitiveness. The methodology provides an excellent way to design a new (or improved) product.
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Smart Materials
Efficient Preparation of Nanoparticle-Reinforced Nickel-based Composite Coating with Highly Preferred (220) Orientation
Renjie Ji, Hui Jin, Yonghong Liu, Tiancong Dong, Fan Zhang, Lilong Zhao, Xinlei Wu, Qiang Sun, Peng Liu, Hang Dong, Chi Ma, Dege Li, Baoping Cai
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  91-91.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00506-7
摘要 ( 7 )   下载 PDF (12765KB) 收藏
Nanoparticle-reinforced metal matrix composite coatings have significant potential in mechanical part surface strengthening owing their excellent mechanical properties. This paper reports a phenomenon in which the grain orientation gradually evolves to (220) as the deposition current density increases when preparing nanoparticle-reinforced nickel-based composite coatings through jet electrodeposition (JED). During the preparation of the Ni-SiC composite coatings, the deposition current density increased from 180 A/dm2 to 220 A/dm2, and TC(220) gradually increase from 41.4% to 97.7%. With an increase of TC(220), the self-corrosion potential increases from-0.575 to-0.477 V, the corrosion current density decreases from 9.52 μA/cm2 to 2.76 μA/cm2, the diameter of the corrosion pits that after 10 days of immersion in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution decreases from 278-944 nm to 153-260 nm, and the adhesion of the coating increases from 24.9 N to 61.6 N. Compared a conventional electrodeposition (CED), the Ni-SiC composite coating using JED has the advantages of a smooth surface morphology, high corrosion resistance, and strong adhesion, which are more obvious with an increase in TC(220).
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Analysis of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties during Inertia Friction Welding of the Near-α TA19 Titanium Alloy
Yanquan Wu, Chunbo Zhang, Jun Zhou, Wu Liang, Yunlei Li
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  88-88.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00507-6
摘要 ( 8 )   下载 PDF (3389KB) 收藏
The current research of titanium alloy on friction welding process in the field of aero-engines mainly focuses on the linear friction welding. Compared to the linear friction welding, inertial friction welding of titanium alloy still has important application position in the welding of aero-engine rotating assembly. However, up to now, few reports on inertial friction welding of titanium alloy are found. In this paper, the near-alpha TA19 titanium alloy welded joint was successfully obtained by inertial friction welding (IFW) process. The microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated systematically. Results showed that the refined grains within 15?20 μm and weak texture were found in the weld zone due to dynamic recrystallization caused by high temperature and plastic deformation. The weld zone consisted of acicular α′ martensite phase, αp phase and metastable β phase. Most lath-shaped αs and β phase in base metal were transformed into acicular martensite α′ phase and metastable β phase in thermo-mechanically affected zone and heat affected zone. As a result, the microhardness of welded joint gradually decreased from the weld zone to the base metal. Tensile specimens in room temperature and high temperature of 480 ℃ were all fractured in base metal illustrating that the inertia friction welded TA19 titanium alloy joint owned higher tensile strength compared to the base metal.
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Ocean Engineering Equipment
Vibration Reduction Performance of Damping-Enhanced Water-Lubricated Bearing Using Fluid-Saturated Perforated Slabs
Yong Jin, Jianjun Lu, Wu Ouyang, Zhenglin Liu, Kunsheng Lao
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  92-92.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00516-5
摘要 ( 8 )   下载 PDF (1905KB) 收藏
As the first link element for the transmission of shaft vibration to the pedestal and even to the hull, water-lubricated bearing plays a key role in suppressing vibration. Although the porous structure is considered as one of the main methods for improving the wideband vibration and noise reduction performance of materials in many industrial fields, the studies in the field of water-lubricated bearing remain insufficient. To enhance vibration reduction performance, a fluid-saturated perforated slab is designed in this study, and via the establishment of a fluid-solid coupled vibration model, the influence law and impact levels were analyzed and verified by simulation and experiments. The results obtained verified that the total vibration amplitude of damping-enhanced stern bearing in the vertical direction was smaller than that of the normal stern bearing, and the reduction amplitude of the characteristic frequency agreed with the optimal value at approximately 0.1 of the volume fraction of the liquid phase when the solid-fluid phase was rubber–water. Additionally, the increase in fluid fraction did not enhance the damping effect, instead, it unexpectedly reduced the natural frequency of the raw material significantly. This research indicates that the design of the fluid-saturated perforated slab is effective in reducing the transmission of the vibration amplitude from the shaft, and presents the best volume fraction of the liquid phase.
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Advanced Transportation Equipment
Tire Dynamics Modeling Method Based on Rapid Test Method
Dang Lu, Lei Lu, Haidong Wu, Wei Wang, Manyi Lv
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020, (6):  85-85.  DOI: 10.1186/s10033-020-00513-8
摘要 ( 12 )   下载 PDF (1332KB) 收藏
Combined with the tire dynamics theoretical model, a rapid test method to obtain tire lateral and longitudinal both steady-state and transient characteristics only based on the tire quasi-steady-state test results is proposed. For steady state data extraction, the test time of the rapid test method is half that of the conventional test method. For transient tire characteristics the rapid test method omits the traditional tire test totally. At the mean time the accuracy of the two method is much closed. The rapid test method is explained theoretically and the test process is designed. The key parameters of tire are extracted and the comparison is made between rapid test and traditional test method. The result show that the identification accuracy based on the rapid test method is almost equal to the accuracy of the conventional one. Then, the heat generated during the rapid test method and that generated during the conventional test are calculated separately. The comparison shows that the heat generated during the rapid test is much smaller than the heat generated during the conventional test process. This benefits to the reduction of tire wear and the consistency of test results. Finally, it can be concluded that the fast test method can efficiently, accurately and energy-efficiently measure the steady-state and transient characteristics of the tire.
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